SOC327 2017 Tut6 – Wed 1530

We all know what its like to feel the wrong thing at the wrong time. Boredom when you’re meant to be interested (or at least look interested) in that lecture, anxiety when you’re meant to be happy with friends, tiredness when you’re playing with children, and frustration and stress at work. We all know what it means to feel the wrong thing, and then have to pretend – or display – a different feeling, or even somehow make ourselves feel something altogether different. We call this ‘emotion management.’

But how do we manage our emotions? When should we manage them? Should we always try to think happy thoughts – is sadness just bad and troublesome? Or are there social rules about how and when we should do this? Arlie Hochschild suggests that society has ‘feeling rules’ about how we are allowed to feel in given situations – particularly at work – and that these rules impact differently on men and women, with women still doing the bulk of the ‘emotional labour’ involved in care jobs in most countries.

Do you manage your emotions most of the time at work? Or in other areas of life? Does your gender affect this?

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22 Comments

  1. I have had to manage my emotions a handful of times during work. As a waitress, a big smile and a positive attitude is crucial for survival.
    Tutorials are another place I feel I have to keep my emotions under control.
    In my social life, if I am experiencing an emotion that I feel would be considered unnecessary by those around me – I’d keep it on the down low.
    In regards to emotion management and my gender, in my experience I feel like it is more acceptable for males in the workplace to express anger and frustration. It’s almost as if it is valid coming from males whatever it has stemmed from. But with females, periods, ‘being overdramatic’, or being a bitch are common guesses of why anger or frustration is expressed.

  2. Hochschild (1983) argues that we regulate and adjust our actions and emotions in order to fulfil the expectations and norms of a given social situation. Emotional management is something that I engage in regularly at work as a retail assistant. Often when I find myself dealing with impolite and demanding customers, or misbehaving children, I strive to maintain a bubbly, positive, energetic and accommodating nature, regardless of the genuine emotions I am feeling. Hochschild (1983) defines this kind of emotional management as ‘feeling rules’. Breaking the ‘feeling rules’ at work by displaying anything other than a cheerful or pleasant emotion would be considered deviant.

    During, or at the completion of my shift, sometimes I feel emotionally drained from the effort needed to maintain a certain persona. Hochschild (1983) refers to this as ‘surface acting’, whereby “the performer pretends to be the character for the benefit of the audience”(Hochschild, 1983, p.1) which I find can be applied to many jobs throughout the service sector. To counteract or to overcome feelings of boredom or frustration at work, I engage in bodily movements, such as deep breathing, stretching or bouncing on my toes, in an attempt to engender or redirect my emotions towards the appropriate feelings necessary for that particular social setting. Hochschild (1983) argues that incorporating such bodily movement can be an effective method in managing our emotions.

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  3. Hochschild (1983) argues that monitoring our emotions is essential for making an impression. This is particularly important in the workplace as you a representing a company. In the customer service industry, we are expected to regulate our emotions constantly.

    As a receptionist, I am the first port of call for clients and must dismiss my emotions and take on an image to most benefit the company. Hochschild defines this as ‘surface acting’ (1983). If I let my persona down, it has negative consequences as illustrated in Disney’s ‘Inside Out’ (2015) – embarrassment, self-doubt, and in extreme instances; dismissal.

    Gender can influence emotional management, however; I find it contextual on the individual’s personal circumstances. Although, in my personal experience, I can see how women are held more ‘responsible’ for their actions, whereby men are ‘just blowing off steam’.

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  4. It is extremely common for all people to experience emotions that they shouldn’t necessarily feel within certain situations. This known as ‘emotion management’, when we do not act how we truly feel due to social rules, mood of a particular setting, or because we aren’t allowed to show our real emotions as they might have terrible circumstances for our well being.

    When looking at the film ‘Inside Out’, we can see that both happiness and sadness are key emotions in having a balanced life. To have sad emotions is not necessarily a bad thing, as it makes the happier emotions and memories more enjoyable. However, there are always times and places in which people can feel or act specific emotions. Our emotions are governed by social rules and orders as Goffman states, “…rules govern how people try or try not to feel in ways appropriate to the situation” (Hochschild 1979, p.552). This is reflective of my experiences in the workplace, where I often have to deal with students who can at times be quite rude. In a normal situation, if a young adult came up to me with smart comments I would tell them to either go away or to not be so rude to a person who is only trying to help them. However, being in a higher authority position I have to keep my true emotions inside and “…actively manage outer impressions” by keeping my composure to manage and teach the student the right way to go about their problems with other students or with myself (Hochschild 1979, p.557). In this way, teachers enact Hochschild’s concept of ‘feeling rules’, as they align their emotions and actions with the norms and expectations placed on them within the social setting of the school (Hochschild 1979, p. 3). My experiences at work are also seen through gender differences of differing roles female teachers take on and respond to, over male teachers. This is represented when Hackman states, “…men and women may both be engaged in the same degree of emotional labour formally, but women are expected to provide extra emotional labour on the side” (Hackman 2015). Within my experiences as a female teacher’s aide, I have seen that women tend to have more emotional labour than male teachers, as they are the ones who approach students who are upset or need someone to talk to. In this way, female teachers are teachers as well as counsellors for many students, but are not paid any extra for their additional emotional labour.

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  5. I work as a drama teacher for children after school and as I was reading through Hochscild’s article, I 100% understood what she was describing as surface acting and deep acting. I definitely manage my emotions whilst at work through deep acting. Because I have to be very energetic and enthusiastic for the children I often find myself working to literally change however I’m feeling that day and evoke the emotions that I need to run a good lesson. Most of the time I am very tired and feeling lazy before the start of the lesson and I find that through ‘deep acting’ I can make work more enjoyable for myself and obviously more beneficial for the children. I do this in a number of ways. I remind myself to be grateful for such a good part time job, which helps me to feel positive and excited to teach. Hochscild describes this as ‘cognitive’ emotion work as I am attempting to change my negative thoughts towards work into positive ones and thus positive feelings (1979:562). I also consciously make myself emulate the energy that kids bring to class so that I can feel energetic too. The best way I find I can change how I’m feeling though is through ‘expressive emotion work’ where I ‘change expressive gestures in the service of changing inner feelings’ (1979:562). Teaching drama provides an easy way to do this as I ensure to be very smiley, dramatic and expressive through big gestures/bodily movements and a loud, enthusiastic voice. Feeling tired and lazy whilst doing this is almost impossible and thus serves as a good way I can ensure to be energetic and enthusiastic. I agree with the point in the lecture that surface acting is more exhausting and emotionally draining than deep acting (Naring et al, 2012). On the rare occasions at work where I am feeling just too tired to be energetic or too down to be enthusiastic I participate in surface acting by displaying the right emotions so the lesson is still enjoyable for the children. I find this to be much more strenuous and taxing compared to deep acting where I can actually change how I’m feeling instead of just pretending. I think deep acting is a skill and a good skill to have. Often our feelings are unwarranted and it’s awesome that when we need to, we have the ability to change our feelings for the better.

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  6. We all experience emotions, sometimes where it is deemed socially inappropriate. You wouldn’t expect someone to laugh and be happy at a funeral, nor would you expect someone to cry at a birthday party. At work, we can be expected to be somewhat neutral; not being upset and emotional, but not jumping off the walls excited. Like Hoschschild’s (1983) example of air hostesses, where they are expected to be polite, upbeat and attentive, and not angry, upset or rude – managing their negative emotions.

    I most certainly manage my emotions at work. If i am having a bad day, I arrive upset or grouchy. Although I may not be my positive, up beat self, I wouldn’t give reason for my colleagues to think something is wrong. However in other areas of life, I personally will show most emotions I feel, to an extent. When I’m around those closest, i’m more likely to be emotively expressive and sadness is not problematic, whereas when I’m with strangers I may be more controlled.

    Emotional management and its relation to gender, i believe is interesting. I think years ago i may have been more inclined to believe Hochschild’s (1983) view that women do the bulk of emotional labour, however now, I believe there is pressure on both men and women. This pressure manifests in the two genders differently, though. In female’s, like Hochschild (1983) stated, the emotional work is surrounded around managing negative emotions, like anger and aggression. Instead women must appear supportive and approachable.
    I believe men also have to do emotional work, in a more social setting however. They have to seem tough, show aggression, be strong, or ‘masculine’ for a better word. This opinion resonated in me through the the movement ‘The Mask You Live In’ – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hc45-ptHMxo . Men have feeling rules in social settings, where they may appear to have negative emotions more often than women.

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  7. I manage my feelings in every situation. At work, home and in almost all social settings. This is influenced by my gender, and in a sense it is one of the most significant factors.

    We alter our personality to suit the situation that we are in, and we do this to align with what Hochschild describes as the ‘feeling rules’. This is gendered; in that women are expected to act in one way, and men in another. For example, women often adopt the role of comforter. So, if a mother hears her child cry in the night most mothers will get up and comfort their child, whilst the child’s father stays asleep in bed. However, if the father gets up to comfort his child others will often praise him as going ‘above and beyond his fatherly duties’ by stating; “What a good dad!”. This is an example of a gendered ‘feeling rule’. What is ironic in this situation is that the contravention of these ‘feeling rules’ is skewed in favour of the male. (Funny that!) For example, although the father has broken these social rules, he has somehow attracted praise for his actions. On the other hand, if ‘Mummy’ fails to get out of bed to comfort her child on an ongoing basis, she may be labelled as ‘hard’ or ‘uncaring’, and thus unsuited to her gendered role as ‘mother’. Unfortunately for women, these roles are often unpaid and unrecognised.

    Gendered feeling rules also underscore the market as there is a commodification of feelings in the workplace. I will draw on my own personal experience to describe this point. I used to work in retail management. This required me to display emotional management, not only for myself, but also for others. I had to manage the feelings of customers, staff, my managers, and also my own emotions. However, I was aware that my role was shaping the feelings of others. For example, I would try to make my staff happy and, in a sense, trigger the ‘deep acting’ emotions in these employees to make them feel satisfied in their work. This in turn, would result in sales for the business. Thus, commodifying feelings.

    Despite gendered emotional labour, what is most concerning is that it can be hard to determine which feelings are genuine, and which are examples of ‘deep acting’. In response to this concern, I raise the following questions; When does the ‘happy’ feeling at work become real, and no longer an example of ‘deep acting’? Or, is this transfer of emotion impossible to achieve?

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  8. During Week Six’s lecture, we learned about Hochschild’s argument on emotion management. Hochschild puts forward the idea that we alter our emotions in order to ensure that they are appropriate for a specific situation (Hochschild 1979, p. 551). There are definitely rules about how people should feel during certain circumstances and in specific environments (Hochschild 1979, p. 552). People definitely manage their emotions at work or even within a university environment in which you may not agree with someone’s opinion or statement but have to remember that an emotional reaction is not always necessary and it is best to handle the situation appropriately and without fuss. This relates to Hochschild’s argument about applying the appropriate emotions to the behaviour expectations in that particular environment (Hochschild 1979, p. 552).

    Reference List

    Hochschild, A 1979, ‘Emotion Work, Feeling Rules, and Social Structure’, American Journal of Sociology, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 551-575.

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  9. Managing emotions is something one can do intentionally or unintentionally. It is how one perceives their environment surrounding them and adjust their feelings (and facial expressions) accordingly – this is what Hochschild (1983) identifies as ‘feeling rules’. Hochschild contends that the emotions and actions of an individual must be regulated in order to conform to the norms and expectations of our social environment (1983, p.3). Thus, individuals are expected to manage their emotions in alignment with societal norms, rather than feeling and expression how they are actually feeling.

    The management of our feelings can be pointed out quite directly, and this is when the regulation of feelings takes place. For example, if you were at work and were told by (perhaps) your boss that you needed to smile more, so the customers feel invited to approach you. Most would regulate their feelings in order to make a smile more authentic (or at least act that way). Especially in the workplace, there may be consequences for not following these ‘feeling rules’.

    Hackman comments on women’s contribution to ‘emotional labour’ in the workplace, as “repeated, taxing and under-acknowledged acts of gendered performance” (Hackman, 2015). This is particularly interesting, as honestly, I have never thought of these, somewhat instinctive actions in this way. However, reading further, it makes complete sense that this frank definition describes another avenue of expected actions/behaviours unfairly placed on women. I implore research uncovering this gender construct and encourage the even distribution of emotional labour.

  10. There are many times where I have had to change the way in which I am expressing what I am feeling on the inside in order to suit the environment that I am in; as the examples above state, we ‘should’ look engaged in lectures, and have discussed in depth, we ‘should’ look sad at funerals. Emotional management is prevalent through society – especially Western society – and is highly gendered.

    Complex emotions explored in ‘Inside Out’ and how we react to these is the new important piece of media that guardians need to be showing to their children in order to set them on the right track of emotional management, and that it is important to feel and deal with what we feel. Hochschild adds rules to these situations as referred to above, with ‘feeling rules’ that dictate what is more socially accepted and expected of a person in any given area. Personally, I find it easy to manage my emotions because I prefer to stay on track and on task at work and uni, and I am not too sure if my gender comes into play about this.

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  11. Academic Hochschild (1983) explores the notion of an individual’s emotional expectation within certain social situations and the actions or adjustments in which we make to present these acceptable emotions. As a manager of two busy restaurants, emotional management is a crucial component to staying employed. In order for an overall good experience, service and review of the business from customers and potential customers, a polite, bubbly, helpful and confident worker is needed, regardless of the customer’s attitude. However, I do at times catch myself being short with particular customers due to their behaviour. When this happens I have to make myself feel something else other than frustration to continue my acceptable demeanor in this particular social setting.

    I feel as though I do not at times know the person I am when working in hospitality, friends will come into my workplace and state that the “image” I give off is completely different to my normal relaxed self. I have heard many hospitality workers state the same thing and also acknowledge the major upkeep it takes to hold this image of ones self whilst completing a shift. Moreover, I feel that gender is stereotyped in relation to emotional management, with females being recognized as bubbly and approachable whereas at times men may be short with a customer, however it is not questioned by the customer because some “boys are just like that”.

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  12. Emotional management is something I have never really thought of before. Now that it has been pointed out I can see that we manage our emotions through hiding what we are truly feeling and instead displaying the emotion that is expected of us during that time. Emotions should be managed in just about all public situations. If you are at work you need to be happy and cannot yell at a customer or client if they are being rude to you. At funerals you can’t giggle and be happy. You can’t be angry at the supermarket and start throwing stuff. At home however, given the right situation, people are more freely and willing to express any of these emotions without showing restraint. Even when someone is considered to be being erratic in public they may still be holding back on the extent or amount of that emotion they are feeling. Even sometimes in situations in the home if your family is around you might be less likely to show anger towards a partner then you would if you were alone. When emotions should be managed is determined by public and private lifestyles.

    Most of the time I do manage my emotions at work. There are times when I can’t hid my anger or disgust at what a customer has just said or done to me – that’s just being human though. More recently I have noticed myself being overly happy and forcing myself to be extremely happy (more so when I’m dreading being at work then when I am genuinely having a good time there). I have been doing this because I find that expressing happiness when I am not happy allows for me to actually become happy with the situation I am in and leads to a more positive start to the day and typically a more positive end to the day as well. Because I have found this to work for me I find myself asking other people if they’re happy and ok more often then I did before. I tell them to smile and give them hugs when they are clearly having a bad time. Before making this change I was just as ‘miserable’ as everyone else at work.

    In saying this however before making this change I did notice that it was typically the women in my work place who made the most effort to be happy and portray positive emotions. It is the women who when they are sick or having a bad day and they show it that are constantly asked what is wrong where as when the men are having a bad day or aren’t portraying positive emotions everyone takes it as normal and they are very rarely asked if they are ok or need anything.

    I think emotional management is seen more actively in the way women portray their emotions and so on but I think it is important to realise there are emotions men are expected to portray too. In saying this I do think it is more ok for a man to feel and express an emotion which doesn’t quite fit the situation they are in then a women. Perhaps this goes back to times when women were considered more emotional and more able to express emotions in private but had to put on a face when out in public. Perhaps we are seeing a shift back into these times and this is why, like the article said, we are starting to debate emotional management more and more.

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  13. Emotional management is pretty important to me in regards to working and hanging out in a social environment. It’s not socially expectable to show what you’re feeling in social environments a lot of the time, for example; we can’t really express when we feel sad around our friends, because we’re taught not to bring everyone else’s mood down.

    An example I can pull from my past experience, is one day I was serving some people at work, and they came up to the front register and started complaining to me about something I had no control over, when I said I was just grabbing the manager to help them because I wasn’t trained for this, they began arguing that I should be and began asking why am I working here if I can’t help people. I needed to control my emotion in this situation as I would probably get fired if I showed how annoyed I actually was to the customer.

    In regards to emotional management and my gender, I think it’s widely accepted more for males to express feelings in the work place or social meetings which they should not express due to a clash of emotional feelings due to an imbalance of equality between gender. I feel like women tend to get unfairly criticized in the workplace if they show any kind of emotion which isn’t happiness.

  14. Working in retail is definitely somewhere I manage my emotions whether it be dealing with customers or fellow work colleagues. Emotion management is a tool we all use all the time.
    Hochschild (1979) tells us that our emotions are affected by society as it not only shapes them but also shapes our reactions to our emotions in to how we feel about them and what we do with these emotions.

    So society has rules about how I should feel about something and determine what is the appropriate feeling I should feel. So much of our lives is socially constructed that we can be not even aware of it.

    Gender plays an important role in our feelings and the expectations we as men and women should feel about something. why can’t we be allowed to just feel what we feel

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  15. This week we looked at emotional management. The lecture gave an interest look at emotions as something that is not only personal but it is also something that is affected by society. Society affects how we react and how we actually feel certain emotions in different settings. Hochschild argument in this week’s reading is about the ‘feeling rules’, this is that individuals inhibit feelings so they can render them appropriate to different situations (Hochschile, p.551). Society constrains us. In different social settings there are appropriate ways of feeling, if you feel differently you are sometimes not allowed to express this.

    Reflecting on my week, working full time in retail, I tend to manage my emotions much more on a surface acting method. For example, I smile and assist customers in the store while in my head I get annoyed that they are messing up the clothing rack I just cleaned or getting make-up on a white piece of clothing. I know as a sales associate that these feelings are not allowed to be expressed while working.

    But, I honestly find emotion management to be draining and I have experienced times when I have just collapsed and broken many of these ‘feeling rules’. An example is when I became too emotional at work for not getting a promotion that I applied for, although I was allowed to be disappointed my lack of control over by feelings (I blamed on tiredness) was seen to be inappropriate and I could tell that it my co-worker uncomfortable. Coincidently, I felt embarrassed that I could not control my primary emotions in that moment.

    We are social beings and are self-aware of our emotions, we then regulate our emotions. I suppose that is why after the situation I admitted to being embarrassed that I got upset.

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  16. The topic for this week is a meaningful one for me as I identify a lot of my experiences with the points we have discussed concerning the managing of emotions. The question concerning whether gender affects emotional management is an interesting one as I have felt in quite a few instances that gender roles and societal rules abiding gender and emotions have affected me a lot.

    The process of managing emotions is something I have grown up with. When looking back at how my brothers believed they couldn’t cry or they would be judged as feminine and weak and would then channel the emotion into another form, I can see that the different variables of managing their emotions mixed with gendered norms and social values.
    The masculine and feminine dichotomy which operates in the regulating of emotion in society is something that is still prevalent today. It raises questions according to how we view emotions, such as whether emotion happen to us or whether we can control emotion to a certain degree (Stearns 1985, p. 834).

    Hochschild (1983) undertakes an important analysis of work amongst airline stewardesses in the 1970’s and looks at how such work involved regulating and performing certain emotion. Hochschild (1983) outlines that hosts presented a trained version of their emotions, with a quote from a stewardess explaining these emotions as “sweet”. I can compare this surface acting to a lot of my work experiences. I have been trained throughout all my customer service jobs to smile, act young, be sweet and cute. This has even been verbally expressed to me at a previous job where my manager said I looked miserable when I didn’t smile and I needed to look cute for customers. I have had to train how I act in my job and to express certain emotions similar to the stewardesses portrayed by Hochschild (1983).

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  17. I also work in retail as my part-time job while studying. I find emotion management plays a part in almost every role in my life. Perhaps more along the lines of Goffman (1978) when he argues that are we ever our true self but always playing a part. The place where this part is most predominant is at work where my part is also gendered. My role is a brand ambassador, short for a cheerleader for my product), I have to play a part in advocating my brand without hesitation or thought for my own opinion. This is sometimes difficult when challenged by a customer who may have faced a difficult situation with my brand, at this time I must use other forms of emotional management such as empathy and also resilience. The resilience is simply understanding it is not a personal attack that I am managing but an attack on my brand. There are other brand ambassadors that sometimes work in the business I work in, mostly they are men. I have noticed that when I begin my shift, I go through the stores, greeting team and inquiring about their week, issue or a topic we discussed recently. My male counterparts do not do this, they simply walk to thee area and begin work. Perhaps this is where the gendered role comes into play, i feel I need to be caring and nurturing to fit in with this team. Additionally I find myself in deep acting whilst at work. Sometimes I dont feel like being there but out of a sense of obligation I simply work harder at getting into the zone until I can actully make myself feel good about being at work. That way when I leave I know I have done a good job and am worth my wages.

    Goffman, E., 1978. The presentation of self in everyday life (p. 56). Harmondsworth.
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  18. Within workplaces of the 21st century I believe that there is an expectation that all employees manage their emotions, regardless of gender. Within my workplaces there is certainly an expectation that all staff present emotions (i.e. happiness) that are appropriate, regardless of the circumstances. Whilst I am not a believer in the saying the ‘customer is always right’, I have the expectation that the staff under my supervision create an enjoyable environment for our customers through smiles and overall pleasant behaviour. However, once all the guest have left and we are closing up I encourage staff to voice any annoyances that may have occurred with any customers that evening. Understanding that, whilst they need to control their emotions in the presence of difficult guests, there is no need for such control to become a method of ‘deep acting’ (Hochschild, 1979). Such expectations are required of all staff regardless of gender, as we are told that there is a time and place for ‘negative’ emotions outside of the workplace.

    In regards to other areas of my life, I do often practice what Hochschild calls ‘surface acting’. I regulate the emotions that I show to the individuals around me based on those that are socially acceptable regarding the situation/ environment that I’m in. Amongst family and friends I don’t feel the need or pressure to do this. For example, it would not be appropriate for me to express my disliking of someone at his or her funeral, such a thing is not socially acceptable (Putulny 2017). However, it may be acceptable for me to discuss such feelings in private with friends.

    Finally, in regards to gender control of emotions, I believe or hope that slowly we are beginning to see some equilibrium in what emotions are acceptable for men and women to express. Whilst in the past men have been socially portrayed as tough and thus emotionless, I believe that it is slowly becoming more acceptable for men to express emotions in public. Furthermore, I believe that generally there are the same restrictions placed on men and women in the workplace regarding the emotions they are allowed to show. However, that being said, there are still emotions that are viewed differently when portrayed by the different sexes.

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  19. We manage our emotions by masking our feelings and being ignorant to several key issues around us. As difficult as it is to manage emotions, women are expected to hide their emotions better than men. In the case of domestic violence or domestic rape cases, the women is expected the bear the brunt and anger of her husband in certain countries and she is not allowed to speak out with the injustice that happens to her. One example is this incident in India, where men are allowed to marry many wives, just so that there wives will bring them water each day. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aIS6TYZDy6E Men and women are not allowed to cry or show their anger in the public today. It is looked upon as an act of disgust by others. Unfortunately we live in a fake world where everyone is expected to look and seem happy, even though we may be experiencing mixed emotions inside. This is a reason for several people committing suicide today as they get depressed when they are not aloowed to express their emotions and hence they end their life. Hoschild states that “social factors are not seen as an influence on how emotions are actively suppressed or evoked.” This is incorrect as a surgeon is expected to do his job and save lives, even if he is having an emotional outburst. This is the case with women who are nurses and midwives, even if the patients are rude to them, they are still expected to handle them calmly and nicely. I have always had to manage my emotions both at home, school and work. There are several instances where we feel that our bosses and sometimes even our parents are yelling and having emotional outbursts at us for no reason, yet we are not allowed to yell back at them and prove our point. Hence, we are expected to suppress our emotion, especially in public today as even if women cry in public, they are now looked down upon as being weak and weird.

  20. Managing emotions are a daily occurrence, the mannerisms we are socially “allowed” to display and demonstrated therefore control what an individual is to express.
    In my workplace of Early Childhood Education and Care it is inappropriate and unethical for me to yell at a child because they have physically abused me and said horrible things. When at home and in your own space people may manage their emotions differently. Crying when seeing a video on cute animals or babies or when your favourite tv character dies is ok at home, however in the public eye it isn’t ok.
    When at work and being informed of a child’s trauma filled background the appropriate behaviour is to control the emotions and continue on with this child’s education and care.
    In other places of work for example, predominantly male workforce – Defence or auto mechanics; showing frustration or anger may be more socially accepted when something doesn’t go the way it should.

  21. The last time I was in the work force, managing your emotions was a necessity. However being at home and raising my children, l still need to manage emotions.

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  22. Emotions and rationality as Barbalet discussed within earlier weeks discusses The Radical Approach where reason and emotion work in companionship to creation rational and sound outcomes within individuals daily lives. As a bakery manager I reflect Hochschild’s (1983) concept of living up to expectations of managing my negative emotions to complete my work to the professional standard I am expected.

    Context must be considered as emotional management is dependant upon how Hochschild’s (1983) contests that the emotional around managing negative emotions is suppressed as women must appear supportive, approachable almost submissive in nature. Hochschild’s (1983) gendered concept of emotional labour being carried by women within society is contended as the pressure upon gender fluidity is accepted.

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