SOC234 2017 Lab11 – Wed 330

Dear SOC234 Lab,

Please respond to the following question with a reply-post of no more than 250 words:

‘What are the key principles and challenges of ethical research?”

Remember that you will need to post your reply before Lab 11, and don’t forget to look at both the instructions for Tweeting and Blogging and the Lab and Lecture Guide, both up on Moodle.

Thanks and good luck, Roger.

#S234UOW17  #Lab11  #Wed330

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17 Comments

  1. Ethical research is the process of establishing a set of principles and values that protect the rights of participants in social enquiry. This involves focusing attention on the stakeholders, rather than the project itself. Ethical standards prevent the violation of human rights and requires social researchers to apply to conduct experiments and research through human research committees (Habibis, 2013, pg. 73).

    Principles are integral in the progression of social research. As the lecture discussed, the Nuremburg directives for human experimentation included codes such as; avoid all unnecessary harm, risks should never exceed humanitarian importance of research and researchers must be prepared to end experimentation at any stage. The overwhelming consensus in social research is that ethics outweigh benefits; thus the safety and psychological harm must be considered, particularly for at risk groups e.g. children, Indigenous, the elderly and refugees. One instance where these principles were lacking, was the Stanford Prison Experiment (1971) that resulted in abuse of power and extreme distress to prisoners at the time, with no consent or critique for procedure, the trial violated human rights (Zimbardo, 1973).

    Ethical research has its challenges. Consent must be obtained from all participants, written consent or the process of completing the survey, the aims and objectives must be stated and anonymity and confidentiality supported. In Facebook’s 2012 experiment on positive and negative posts and the effect on one’s mood, consent was not explicitly required due to all users agreeing to terms and conditions, thus Facebook may have acted somewhat ethically in a covert experiment. This however, raises the question as to whether informed consent is truly required and questions the loop holes that exist for major corporations, allowing them to outweigh benefits over ethics. We must challenge the power of corporations and ask ourselves if secret manipulation of our news feeds is worth social research results (Hunter, 2014).

    In comparison to the Stanford Prison experiment it is clear that ethical research principles have developed in the last few decades, however, it is important to understand that major corporations and governmental bodies still have the power to manipulate standards to get results.

    #S234UOW17 #Lab11 # Wed330

    REFERENCES:
    Hunter, D 2014, ‘Consent and ethics in Facebook’s emotional manipulation study’, The Conversation, https://theconversation.com/consent-and-ethics-in-facebooks-emotional-manipulation-study-28596, viewed 14/10/2017

    Habibis, D 2013, ‘Ethics and Social Research’, Chapter 4 in Walter, M Social Research Methods. 3rd Edition. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, pg. 73

    Zimbardo, P 1973, ‘On the ethics of intervention in human psychological research: with special reference to the Stanford prison experiment’, Stanford University, pg. 243-256

  2. Habibis discusses in his chapter that ethical research is to protect participants, research integrity, provide justice beneficence, and respect for human beings. “Ethical Dilemmas are routinely experienced so the researcher must assess what is the appropriate course of action” (Habibis, D 2013, p.83). An example of ethical research, using examples spoken of in Patulny’s SOC234 lecture, would be minimizing risks by:
    • Considering safety.
    • Identifying groups likely to be harmed.
    • Avoid situations such as Stanford Prison Experiment.
    Patulny also discusses the types of risks as harmful interventions, questioning, privacy breaching, and targeting vulnerable groups. These examples provide insight into the process of ethical research.
    Habibis (2013, p.94), discusses the expansion of challenges involved in ethical research. He discusses principles being:
    • Power balance between interviewer and interviewee to prevent harm
    • The conductor of the interview needs a sense of morals and ethical requirements needed
    • Government researchers for example, need approval off the human research ethics community
    • Consent forms to prevent privacy issues
    He also discusses the principles as a part of the ethical research process:
    • Privacy of the participants
    • Protection of the participants – meaning allowing participants to remain anonymous in case a situation where to arise where someone intended harm on them because of their opinion
    • Consent to use the participant’s data
    • Confidentiality agreements/contracts
    The ethical challenges and principles can be summarized as privacy and consideration for the members of society.
    Ethical research is important as when researching statistics from people, privacy is a significant factor as it is a basic human right. Social media is an example of ethical issues in research as privacy may be compromised. “Attention to ethical consideration at all stages of the research process is an essential component of professional research” (Habibis, D 3013, p.94). In conducting research, ethical consideration is a factor that a researcher cannot ignore, as the general population must be considered and respected. If ethical research were to be ignored, an increasingly amount of high risk situations would occur.

    • **EDIT**
      Habibis discusses in his chapter that ethical research is to protect participants, research integrity, provide justice beneficence, and respect for human beings. “Ethical Dilemmas are routinely experienced so the researcher must assess what is the appropriate course of action” (Habibis, D 2013, p.83). An example of ethical research, using examples spoken of in Patulny’s SOC234 lecture, would be minimizing risks by:
      • Considering safety.
      • Identifying groups likely to be harmed.
      • Avoid situations such as Stanford Prison Experiment.
      Patulny also discusses the types of risks as harmful interventions, questioning, privacy breaching, and targeting vulnerable groups. These examples provide insight into the process of ethical research.
      Habibis (2013, p.94), discusses the expansion of challenges involved in ethical research. He discusses principles being:
      • Power balance between interviewer and interviewee to prevent harm
      • The conductor of the interview needs a sense of morals and ethical requirements needed
      • Government researchers for example, need approval off the human research ethics community
      • Consent forms to prevent privacy issues
      He also discusses the principles as a part of the ethical research process:
      • Privacy of the participants
      • Protection of the participants – meaning allowing participants to remain anonymous in case a situation where to arise where someone intended harm on them because of their opinion
      • Consent to use the participant’s data
      • Confidentiality agreements/contracts
      The ethical challenges and principles can be summarized as privacy and consideration for the members of society.
      Ethical research is important as when researching statistics from people, privacy is a significant factor as it is a basic human right. Social media is an example of ethical issues in research as privacy may be compromised. “Attention to ethical consideration at all stages of the research process is an essential component of professional research” (Habibis, D 3013, p.94). In conducting research, ethical consideration is a factor that a researcher cannot ignore, as the general population must be considered and respected. If ethical research were to be ignored, an increasingly amount of high risk situations would occur.

      #S234UOW17 #Lab11 # Wed330

      REFERENCES:
      Habibis, D 2013, ‘Ethics and Social Research’, Chapter 4 in Walter, M Social Research Methods. 3rd Edition. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, p.82-94

  3. It is imperative that all social research has strict ethical standards in order to minimise harm to participants. Although applied research is riddled with ethical dilemmas, all research conducted on human participants must meet the institutional and federal ethical requirements. The basis for ethical standards in research today is founded on three main principles. The first principle is respect for persons: all respondents should be voluntary participants that give the researcher their informed consent. Beneficence is the second principle which states that the benefits of the research must exceed the possible harms to participants. Finally, the third principle of justice upholds that the selection process of participants must be equally distributed and fair (2014, American Speech-Language-Hearing Association).

    Historically, research was not always highly ethical. In fact, the gradual development of ethical standards within research was initiated predominantly by the details that were uncovered during the Nuremberg War Crimes Trial. The extreme harm that German scientist caused their human subjects led to a universal re-examination of ethical practices. As explained in this week’s lecture, this lead to the creation of the Nuremberg Code which acts as an ethical directive for human experimentation (2017, Patulny).

    While all current research must follow these ethical guidelines, there are still challenges involved in ensuring ethicality. For example, there are instances where the objective of a study actually prevents the obtainment of consent. This was highlighted in Laud Humphrey’s book “Tearoom Trade” which was in part deceitful because it did not attain informed consent from any participants (1970). Yet the findings from the study were incredibly helpful in de-stigmatising homosexuality in the general public. Although the nature of study needed the ignorance of its participants, Humphrey still insured anonymity of his participants but this still does not quit follow ethical guidelines. It has also been argued that the positive repercussions of the study’s findings outweighed the risks and therefore should be exempt from the criticism of not being entirely ethical. Humphrey’s study is the perfect example of research which has a beneficial premise but also faces ethical challenges whilst pursuing its objective.

    Further challenges are highlighted by the Stanford Prison experiment (1971) which lead to extreme amounts of distress and harm placed upon the participants. The researcher, Philip Zimbardo, ensured that all participants signed an informed consent statement and were aware of the possible harms and risks of the study. Yet Zimbardo states that “Neither they nor we, however, could have predicted in advance the intensity and extent of these aspects of the prison experience.” (1973, 254). This displays that even when research does uphold ethical standards, there remains the possibility that researchers are unable to foresee some harms that could occur during the experimentation process.

    Reference List:
    Humphreys, L., 1970 “Tearoom trade.” Society, 7(3), pp.10-25.
    Patulny, R 2017 SOC234 week 11 research ethics lecture slides, accessed 16/10/2-17.
    Zimbardo, P.G., 1973, “On the ethics of intervention in human psychological research: With special reference to the Stanford prison experiment.” Cognition, 2(2), pp.243-256.
    ASHA 2014, “Issues in Ethics: Protection of Human Subjects”, https://www.asha.org/Practice/ethics/Protection-of-Human-Subjects/, viewed 16/10/2017.

    #Lab11 #Wed330 #S234UOW17

  4. Ethics within research is extremely important and one of the key principles surrounding ethics is consent. Consent needs to be given to researches before an individual can participate in research. This consent needs to be voluntary and without coercion, also participants need to be aware of what the research will involve including risks that may be associated with it. As well as consent, anonymity and confidentiality are key principles; access to data needs to be contained to those individuals who have an ethical purpose for accessing the data. On the other hand, confidentiality can be a challenge within research as information that is disclosed by a respondent may require confidentiality to be broken e.g. unlawful behaviour.
    Research should not cause harm to respondents however, if risks are necessary to the research the respondent is required to be informed beforehand. Respondents also have the right to end the research at any time. However, as asking sensitive questions can be seen as imposing harm onto participants it is sometimes necessary order to become more knowledgeable in these areas such as suicide. The Stanford Prison Experiment is a perfect example of research which has gone wrong. Held over a two week period, where 30 college students took on the role of guards and prisoners. The experiment went wrong when guards forgot that they were essentially acting and began physically and emotionally abusing ‘prisoners’. ‘Prisoners’ requested multiple times that the experiment was stopped however this did not occur. After observation of the deteriorating state of the ‘prisoners’ the experiment was shut down after only six days. The Stanford Prisons Experiment is a great example of why ethics within research needs to be highly considered and upheld during even the smallest of research.

  5. The ethical considerations as outlined by Habbis (2013), surmised, involves adherence to the following three principles when dealing with human participants:
    1. Protection of Human Participants
    Specific challenges to following this principle include (Stuart, 2001 pp.34-35):
    – Consent (without coercion)
    – Protect individual’s right to self-determination
    – Protection from both emotional/psychological and physical harm
    Minimising the risk of harm can be overcome by obtaining informed consent forms from potential participants (Martin and Marker, 2007) and obtaining participants via secure organisations, of which provide participants with both the opportunity for self-determination as well as legally assured protection from harm (both physical and emotional).
    2. Research topics should be of importance to members of society (both as individuals & a whole)
    Specific challenges include:
    – Understanding precise areas of concern relating to the society, for example, studies of rural communities are less likely to benefit from research involving effects of high rise city planning.
    Overcome via continued research, reading and monitoring of the issues plaguing the society in question and thus tailoring research accordingly.
    3. Examine specific research activities and projects for their ethical soundness,
    Specific challenges include:
    – Protection of anonymity and confidentiality, as pointed out by Hunter (2014), that with the improvement of technology (& internet) new and continuously updated questions regarding privacy continue to arise
    – Methodology to be approved via a reputable, ethical committee
    The employment of these three principles adheres to the two ethical beliefs serving as the foundation of research ethics (Burr and Reynolds, 2010): (1) Beneficence & (2) Non-Malfeasance.
    The above information, though failing to incorporate all possible ethical considerations, serves as a vital introduction. Aside from these epistemological and philosophical issues raised rest many different types of legal, political and social issues related to governance and oversight of ethical research.
    References
    1. Burr, J. and Reynolds, P. (2010). The Wrong Paradigm? Social Research and the Predicates of Ethical Scrutiny. Research Ethics, 6(4), pp.128-133.
    2. Habibis, D (2013) ‘Ethics and Social Research’, Chapter 4 in Walter, Maggie (ed.). (2013). Social Research Methods. 3rd Edition. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, p72-98
    3. Hunter, D (2014) ‘Consent and ethics in Facebook’s manipulation study.’ The Conversation, 1/7/14: http://theconversation.com/consent-and-ethics-in-facebooks-emotionalmanipulation-study-28596
    4. Martin, J. and Marker, D. (2007). Informed consent: Interpretations and practice on social surveys. Social Science & Medicine, 65(11), pp.2260-2271.
    5. Stuart, G. (2001). Are You Old Enough?: Research Ethics and young people. Youth Studies Australia, 20(4), pp.34-35.

  6. Safety is a huge principle in ethics research in general as safety of the participants and researchers is crucial. A controlled environment is vital for research as it maintains a safe sort of surrounding for the participants to engage themselves with the researchers as well and to avoid vulnerability. Informed consent is vital also as it ensures not only the safety of the participants, but also informs the participants on what is going to occur during and after the research.
    This also allows for the participant not to be coerced into performing certain acts during the research. Informed consent also ensures that the participant’s contribution and refusal at any point in time during the research is acceptable. Consent forms are usually given and are used in many ways during research such as online surveys and face to face interviews.
    Privacy and confidentiality is very important after conducting ethics research as the participant might want the research relating to them to remain private and they want security regarding these matters also in case the information is leaked somehow. If confidentiality is upheld then the participants involved with the research can maintain their own privacy and through this confidential privacy trust can be created leading to future involvement with ethics research.

    #Lab11 #Wed3:30 #Soc234UOW17

    Reference list
    • Hanson, M, & Pitt, D 2017, ‘Informed consent for surgery: risk discussion and documentation’, Canadian Journal Of Surgery. Journal Canadien De Chirurgie, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 69-70

    • Hibbard, L, & Franklin, T 2015, ‘Libraries in Online Elementary Schools: A Mixed-Methods Study’, TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 85-91.

    • Peter, E, & Friedland, J 2017, ‘Recognizing Risk and Vulnerability in Research Ethics: Imagining the “What Ifs?”‘, Journal of Empirical Research On Human Research Ethics: JERHRE, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 107-116.

    • Smith, H, Dinev, T, & Xu, H 2011, ‘INFORMATION PRIVACY RESEARCH: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY REVIEW’, MIS Quarterly, 35, 4, pp. 980-A27

  7. Ethics involves a set of established moral standards that govern our behavior and interactions in particular settings, such as interviews or focus groups. Ethical research is concerned with ensuring that these ethical principles always govern any research involving humans (Habibis, 2013, p. 73). As we cannot research society the same way we might study inanimate objects, there are ethical boundaries and limitations on how we can approach and undertake our research in order to remain ethical (Habibis, 2013).

    In 1949, a set of basic principles for ethical research on human beings was created, known as the Nuremburg Code. This code presented a number of different directives for human research including; necessity of voluntary consent, results benefit society and are not random or unnecessary and the experiment should be conducted so as to avoid all unnecessary harm. Respect, research merit and integrity, justice and beneficence are ultimately the most prominent values in the ethics of research (Habibis, 2013, p. 78).

    However, conducting ethical research is not without challenge. As researchers we face ethical challenges in all stages of our study, from designing it to actually reporting. The main challenges being safety, on all sides, and confidentiality. In order to uphold the Nuremburg Code and remain ethical, researchers must always keep in mind participants anonymity and confidentiality, as well as have their informed consent (Cheraghi et al, 2014). We must also practice reflexivity in our research and understand how we might have a potential impact on the participants as well as vice versa.

    References:
    Habibis, D. 2013, ‘Ethics and Social Research’, Chapter 4 in Walter, M Social Research Methods. 3rd Edition. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, pp. 72 – 94.

    Cheraghi, MA., Sanjari, M., Bahramnezhad, F., Fomani, FK., Shoghi, M., & Sanjari, M., 2014, ‘Ethical challenges of researchers in qualitative studies: the necessity to develop a specific guideline’, Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine, vol. 7, no. 14 [Accessed: 16 October 2017].

    #Lab11 #Wed330 #S234UOW17

  8. Ethics is the establishment of moral standards that govern behaviour in particular settings/ groups. Ethical research is research in which ensures that ethical principles and values always govern research involving humans to ensure that minimal harm is caused (Habibis 2013, p. 73). Thus we must have limits to what we can and cannot do within social research.
    As spoken about in the lecture, the Nuremburg Code (1949) enables us to see what principles we must abide by in order to conduct ethical research. These include voluntary consent, avoidance of all unnecessary mental/ physical injury, no risk of disability or death, risk should never exceed humanitarian importance of research, the subject should be able to end the experiment whenever they wish, etc. (Habibis 2013, p. 75-76). However, despite these principles there are still challenges for ethical research. An example of this is the Stanford prison experiment by Phillip Zimbardo in 1971. This experiment was in a fake prison and was intended to be conducted over a period of two weeks with 30 college students as volunteers with assigned roles as either guards or prisoners (Zimbardo 1973). Although much was gained from this study, it was not completely ethical. The participants were subjected to great deal of harm, both physical and mental, as well as being unable to leave the experiment when they asked. This violates two principles of the Nuremburg Code, that the risk should never exceed humanitarian importance of research and that the subject should be able to end the experiment whenever they wish.
    #S234UOW17 #Lab11 #Wed330
    References:
    1. Habibis, D. 2013, ‘Ethics and Social Research’, Chapter 4 in Walter, Maggie (ed.). 2013, Social Research Methods, 3rd Edition, South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, p72-98
    2. Zimbardo, P.G. 1973, ‘On the ethics of intervention in human psychological research: with special reference to the Stanford prison experiment’, Stanford University, pg. 243-256

  9. ‘What are the key principles and challenges of ethical research?”

    When doing research it is common to meet ethical issues. It can be challenging to always know the right thing to do, but there are a few things to have in mind when it comes to ethical research.

    There are ethical guidelines for all types of research, and they are mostly there to protect the participants. Some key principals of the basic guidelines are to protect the participant’s privacy, not push anyone in to participate in the research, avoid any mental or physical injury, participants should be allowed to end the experiment if they cant go on with it etc. These are mostly things we can classify as “common sense”, but it is really important that they exist.

    Even though some of the ethical guidelines are easy to understand, there are many challenges we as researchers can meet when it comes to ethical issues. One thing that can be an issue is if you are doing a qualitative research is for example if you´re having a closed observation on the dark net with paedophiles. Is it then okay to pretend to be a paedophile to access their documents, and share stories?

    We want the data to be as accurate as possible, and therefore it can be a challenge if the way we collect data is unethical. When doing research it is important to keep the ethical guidelines in mind, and do an evaluation of what is the right thing to do in different situations based on the key principals.

    #S234UOW17 #Lab11 # Wed330

    Reference list:

    Habibis, D 2013, ‘Ethics and Social Research’, Chapter 4 in Walter, M Social Research Methods. 3rd Edition. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, p.82-94

    Patulny, R 2017 SOC234 week 11 research ethics lecture slides, viewed 17 October 2017.

  10. As identified by the lecture, the key principles of ethical research are simply based upon respect for human beings and include (Habibis 2013, p78);
    • Informed consent and voluntary participation
    • Doing no harm
    • Privacy/Confidentiality/ Anonymity, and
    • Conflicts of interest

    Researchers often find upholding all of the key ethical principles challenging as in order to conduct informative and effective research they must be able to gather data quickly, without large costs (Habibis 2013, p74). Researchers also rely upon high response rates coupled with low attrition rates in order to study a large enough sample to give them a true reflection of the population (Habibis 2013, p74). In order to publish findings in an informative manner researchers need free use of the data they have collected with a fast interpretation method (Habibis 2013, p74).

    The principle of consent is arguably one of the most important, it is highlighted in Facebook’s emotional manipulation study (2014). It outlines that informed voluntary consent is a key ethical principle. Meaning that participants must be informed about what they are consenting to, what the data will be used for and how. Thus satisfying a formal requirement is not is not obtaining informed consent, a mutual understanding between researchers and participants must be reached (Habibis 2013, p79).

    The maintenance of the privacy, anonymity and confidentiality of participants becomes a challenge upon the publication of research findings. The most effective way to do so is to not collect any identifying data in the first place (Habibis 2013, p82). However this may limit a researchers recruitment methods therefore if anonymity cannot be ensured throughout the research process. It must be guaranteed that the information gained is confidential and cannot be traced to each participant via publication (Habibis 2013, p82).

    References;
    Hunter, D ‘Consent and ethics in Facebook’s emotional manipulation study’ July 1, 2014, The Conversation weblog post, 1 July, viewed 18 October 2017,

    Habibis, D 2013, ‘Ethics and Social Research’, Chapter 4 in Walter, M (ed.), Social Research Methods, 3rd ed. South Melbourne, Oxford University Press, p72-98.

  11. Ethics is the practice of moral standards that govern behaviour in a setting or for a group; Ethical Research is concerned with ensuring ethical principles and values always govern research involving humans (Habibis 2013). For research to be ethical, key principles and challenges must be considered.
    At the heart of ethical research is the integrity of the research and the protection of participants (Habibis 2013). As per the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans (section 1) (NHMRC 2007), the four values of ethical research are research merit and integrity, justice, beneficence and respect for Human Beings. The four values of ethical research also imply the importance of other key principles including informed consent, anonymity, confidentiality and safety (Habibis 2013). These implied principles are work in agreement with the Nuremburg Code (1949) a tool that enables us to see the key principles we must consider in conducting ethical research. Key principles of ethical research also applies to the researcher – in the personal safety of the researcher, truth reporting of research and acknowledgement of resources (Habibis 2013).
    The challenges of ethical research lies in ensuring all principles are met, for e.g. maintaining confidentiality and anonymity by not collecting identifying data (Habibis 2013).
    References:
    Habibis, D. 2013, ‘Ethics and Social Research’, Chapter 4 in Walter, M, Social Research Methods. 3rd Edition. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, pp. 72 – 94.
    National Health and Medical Research Council (NHRMC) 2007, National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research, .

  12. Ethics are essential in every type of research. It is important to think about ethical considerations within the planning stage of a research project as it will determine how the research methods are pursued. The concept of ethics can be described as ‘the establishment of a set of moral standards that govern behaviour in a particular setting or for a particular group’ (Habibis 2010, p. 90). Ethical research ensures that ethical values and morals are behind the entire research process and decision making. The key principles of ethical research involve understanding the power relations between the researcher and the researched. Participants are often from vulnerable populations, therefore they may be subjected to sensitive topics and discussion that require ethical considerations. Informed consent is required to ensure that the participants are informed about what the research is about and what participation will involve and allow them to make the decision to participate without any coercion (Habibis 2010, p. 98). Some challenges of ethical research may include the need for confidentiality and conflicts of interest between the researcher and the participant. Confidentiality for the participant requires that the researcher change data to present ‘id’ codes. There is also a potential for a conflict of interest between the researcher’s needs and the needs of the participant. The researcher will want an inexpensive and fast data collection method, whereas, the participant will need information and time to make an informed decision about their participation.

    References:
    Habibis, D 2010, ‘Ethics and Social Research’, in M Walters (ed.) Social Research Methods, 2nd edn, Oxford University Press, Victoria, pp. 89 – 121.

  13. Blog
    ‘What are the key principles and challenges of ethical research?”

    Ethics form a set of moral principles that govern behaviour in a setting or a group (Habibis 2013). Ethical research aims to ensure that ethical values and principles govern research regarding humans (Habibis 2013). Thus, from the Nuremberg code, values include; voluntary consent, research never causing harm to an individual and confidentiality (Habibis 2013). Studies that violated the rights of human participants led to the obligation that research had to first be submitted for endorsement to the human ethics committee before funding. Moreover, ethical concerns include; testing people without consent, testing vulnerable groups, deception, using personal data without permission and the use of politically sensitive information (Habibis 2013).
    The challenges that arise from ethical research include; data management, where confidentiality and anonymity create implications for the way data is stored and recorded (Habibis 2013). Furthermore, testing vulnerable groups can create challenges in gaining consent; for example, testing mentally ill individuals who have difficulty with comprehension (Habibis 2013). Moreover, researchers must make sure of research merit, which can sometimes be a challenge (Habibis 2013) Hence, research needs to be beneficial to society and needs to meet discipline standards (Habibis 2013).
    Research using social media can also be an issue; thus, there are issues of informed consent and copyright (Habibis 2013). For example, according to Hunter (2014), Facebook revealed how it manipulated the results of thousands of users without consent. However, the authors of this study believed they had informed consent, consistent with Facebook’s Data Use Policy, in which all users agree to (Hunter 2014). Therefore, using social media for research can be challenging as it creates blurred boundaries as to what is ethically right or wrong.

    Overall, research should always consider ethics, despite challenges it can create.

    References
    Habibis, D 2013 ‘Ethics and Social Research’, Chapter 4 in Walter, Maggie (ed.) (2013), Social Research Methods, 3rd Edition, South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, p72-98

    Hunter, D 2014 ‘Consent and ethics in Facebook’s manipulation study,’ The Conversation, 1/7/14: Avaible at: http://theconversation.com/consent-and-ethics-infacebooks-emotional-manipulation-study-2859

  14. The Nuremberg ten principles for ethical research balances both researcher needs and participants needs, some of these include voluntary consent from your participants, this entails an information sheet and consent form in most circumstances (Walter 2013 p. 75). To do no harm (physically and psychologically) by ensuring the benefits must outweigh the potential risks, for example; conducting a blood test in western societies s to diagnose gene mutations that increases risk of a cancer. Research must be conducted by qualified persons to ensure it is thorough, safe and logical (Walter 2017, p. 76). The participant must be eligible to leave the research at any given time and the researcher must be prepared for this to happen (Office of NIH 1949).

    Some of the challenges of ethical research is ensuring privacy, anonymity and confidentiality of participants information by using numbers to code data, however this can be compromised by a cyber-attack which occurred in Australian Census (ABC News 2016). The research design itself may not be ethical for the sample the researcher wants to study , such as Aboriginal children and health outcomes using ethnography is not ethical to conduct unless you have contact and permission from elders and parents (Marshall 2007, p. 28) .This can be difficult to study other vulnerable populations as well (elderly, disabled, prisoners) in terms of gaining voluntary consent to persons that cannot give consent due to intellectual difficulties; this can be overcome in some situations such as caregivers consenting if ethical, again this is a subjective area (NHMRC 2017). What makes ethical research challenging is there are still grey areas in which if logically justified using the principles, certain studies can be deemed ethical or unethical.

    References:

    ABC News 2016, Census: Australian Bureau of Statistics says website attacked by overseas hackers, 10 August 2016, viewed 17 August 2017,

    Habibis, D 2013, ‘Ethics and Social Research’, in M Walter (ed.), Social Research Methods, South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, pp. 72-98.

    Marshall, PA 2007, ‘Ethical challenges in study design and informed consent for health research in resource-poor settings’, Social, Economic and Behavioural Research Report Series, no. 5, viewed 15 October 2017,

    National Health and Medical Research Council, Chapter 4.5: People with a cognitive impairment, an impairment, an intellectual disability, or mental illness, Australian Government National Health and Medical Research Council, Canberra.
    – See NHMRC 2017

    Office of NIH 1949, ‘Nuremburg Code, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 181-182, viewed 17 October 2017,

    #S234UOW17 #Lab1 # Wed130

  15. Ethical research is concerned with ensuring that any research involving humans is governed by ethical principles and values (Habibis p.73, 2013). There are a number of key principals involved with ethical research, and these principals are, in fact, also the challenges that are faced within ethical research. The SOC234 lecture 11 outlines the key principals of ethical research:
    “1 – Voluntary consent
    2 – Results good for society
    3 – Preceded by animal experimentation or prior knowledge
    4 – Avoid all unnecessary physical/mental injury
    5 – No experiment should risk disability or death
    6 – Risk should never exceed humanitarian importance of research
    7 – Proper protective preparations and facilities required
    8 – Should only be conducted by suitably qualified persons
    9 – The subject should be able to end the experiment if they can’t go on with it
    10 – Researcher must be prepared to end experiment at any stage” (Patunly 2017)
    The main principles concerned with ethical research and the protection of those involved include informed consent (often an information sheet and consent forms are utilised), anonymity, confidentially and protection from harm (especially for vulnerable groups, such as children). Challenges often arise for researchers, because abiding by these guidelines can often hinder the process of finding enough appropriate candidates to participate in their research, and in turn obtain accurate results.
    #s234uow17 #lab11 #wed330

  16. It is important within research to incorporate ethical principles and there are standards which should be applied to all research. The Nuremberg Code is vital to understanding ethical standards when it comes to research (Habibis p. 75). It has historical basis surrounding the unethical experimentations done on inmates of Nazi concentration camps during WWII by those in positions of power (Habibis p. 75). Using such unethical grounds, the Nuremberg Code has become central to basic ethical principles when undertaking research on people.

    Some of the standards put forth by the Code include the need to have voluntary consent and to avoid injuries and suffering that are unnecessary (Habibis pp. 75-76). This promotes ethical rules within research aimed at propelling humanitarian aspects; meaning that the risks of the study should not outweigh human welfare. Ensuring informed consent, the minimisation of risks and harm, and the focus on human health and humanitarian importance are therefore central to ethical research (Martin & Marker 2007; Stuart 2001).

    Consequently, there are challenges to ethical research. The contestation of good research versus ethical research may be troubling for some, especially those who conducted experiments within the Nazi concentration camps, as ethical codes may seem to impede efficient and quick research. Want of getting results may overshadow ethical codes.
    Nosek, Banaki, and Greenwald (2002, p. 162) also look at how internet-based research involves inherent risks such as the inability to assure: anonymity, privacy, informed consent and debriefing.

    #S234UOW17 #Lab11 #Wed130b

    Reference List:

    Habibis, D 2013, ‘Ethics and Social Research’, in M Walters (ed.), Social Research Methos, 3rd Edition, Melbourne, Oxford University Press, pp. 72-98.

    Martin, J & Marker, DA 2007, ‘Informed Consent: Interpretations and practice on social surveys’, Social Science & Medicine, vol. 65, no. 11, pp. 2260-2271.

    Nosek, BA, Banaji, MR & Greenwald, AG 2002, ‘E-Research: Ethics, Security, Design, and Control in Psychological Research on the Internet’, Journal of Social Issues, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 161-176.

    Stuart G 2001, ‘Youth Studies Australia’, vol. 20, no. 4, pp .34-39.

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