SOC234 2018 Lab11 – Mon 4.30pm

Dear SOC234 Lab,

Please respond to the following question with a reply-post of no more than 250 words:

‘What are the key principles and challenges of ethical research?”

Remember that you will need to post your reply before Lab 11, and don’t forget to look at both the instructions for Tweeting and Blogging and the Lab and Lecture Guide, both up on Moodle.

Thanks and good luck, Roger.

#S234UOW18  #Lab11  #Mon430

Posted in SOC234 - Social Research methods, UOW.

21 Comments on SOC234 2018 Lab11 – Mon 4.30pm

Thomas Roberts said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Principles and challenges of ethical research are the understanding of conflicts that arise from moral instructions and how to deal with them the best. When conducting research, a principal would be that a researcher must respect privacy, confidentiality and upon request anonymity. A challenge of ethical research would be a conflict of interest during the research and how to deal with it. The obvious things such as no harm or harassment do not have to be discussed because one would think that not harming and harassing a person is obvious. A researcher must have informed consent from the participants too.

Rochelle Nash said : Guest Report 5 months ago

The concept of ethics relates to the moral standards that govern the research project and the researcher themselves. Ethical research is essential for the comfort of the participant. The key principles and challenges of ethical research present themselves in many forms. The key principles involve anonymity, being the identification protection of all participants, and confidentiality, the protection of the participants’ responses. There are also many vulnerable participant groups that researchers need to be aware of. This includes children, teachers, government authorities, employers, prisoners and particular ethnic groups. The challenges presented with these are that certain groups have sensitivity issues, and the researcher needs to be careful that they don’t offend the group or make them feel uncomfortable in any form. For example, children require certain permissions from their parents, and the researcher needs to evaluate they best way to communicate with the child in a way that they can understand and comprehend. (Habibis, 2017). It is also important that all participants and persons further involved in the care of that participant are given a consent form. This outlines why the participant was chosen, what the participant will be required to do, approximately how long it’ll take, the intent of the research and how the information provided by the participant will be used in the study. They are given the option to opt out of the study at any time if they wish to, and finally are given the contact details for the researcher, their supervisor and their organisation. (Human Research Ethics Committee, n.d.)

Ryan Forsyth said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Vanclay et al. (2013) identify the two key principles of ethical research as informed consent and respect for participants these two are the basis of all other ethical research principles. Informed consent involves giving the participant the important information relevant to the research that is taking place, that they might understand what they are participating in and knowledgeably give permission for us to gather data from them (Patulny 2018). The later of these key principles is far more vague but includes being only conducting conscious of the participant/s privacy and thus protecting their confidentiality and showing them a sense of decency while interviewing them. Logically, many of the challenges of ethical research are simply upholding these principles. Often research would be easier or more convenient if researchers ignored them so the challenges then are to still do effective research while maintaining these principles. For example, some research requires observation of subjects behaviour without them being aware they are being observed. The challenge then is to do the research with the appropriate informed consent and respecting the participant, or deciding to collect data a different way in order to uphold ethical principles. References: Patulny, R. 2018, ‘Lecture 12: Research Ethics’, SOC234- Social Research Methods 2018, accessed at: https://moodle.uowplatform.edu.au/pluginfile.php/1231308/mod_resource/content/5/SOC234Week12-ethics.pdf 22nd May 2018. Vanclay, F., Baines, J.T., Taylor, C.N., 2013. Principles for ethical research involving humans: ethical professional practice in impact assessment Part I. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal 31, 243–253. https://doi.org/10.1080/14615517.2013.850307

Ashlea Pellow said : Guest Report 5 months ago

When it comes to conducting ethical research there are four principles that need to be taken into consideration when seeking out participants. These principles are informed consent, anonymity, confidentiality and protection from harm (Walter, 2013, p.78). First of all consent. It is important to remember that participation must be voluntary and that they have a sufficient understanding of the research taking place (Walter 2013, p.79). This is implicated by giving the participant an information sheet before giving a consent sheet for them to sign. The second principle of ethical research is anonymity. Anonymity refers to protecting participants identity as they participate in the research (Walter, 2013, p. 80). Because the participant has consented to being involved in ethical research, there is an element of trust between the researcher and the participant. Anonymity can be a challenge to ethical research, as it is possible in the recruitment stage there may have to be access to names and contact details (Walter, 2013, p. 82). The third principle of ethical research is confidentiality. Confidentiality and anonymity essentially go hand in hand as they are both about protecting the privacy of the participants, however confidentiality is making sure once information is provided that there isn’t a link back to them (Walter, 2013, p. 82). The last principle of ethical research is the safety of participants. This won’t apply to most areas of research, but mostly relevant to medical or psychological research (Walter, 2013, p. 83). Research methods such as harmful intervention, harmful questions, breach of privacy and involving vulnerable groups, needs to be taken into careful consideration as to not breach ethical principles (Patulny, 2018).

Lucie Galvin said : Guest Report 5 months ago

If a person or group of people want to investigate something, or study an interaction, behaviour, how an independent variable affects a dependent variable, they need to conduct an experiment. However, over time the concerns of participants in experiments have been paramount. Experiments such as Watson’s conditioned learning with little Albert or the famous Stanford prison experiment would no longer be able to be conducted as there are too many research ethics being breached in these studies. To insure participants are not mentally or physical harmed during an experiment there are key principles outlined for their safety. These principles include ethical principles, no harm, informed consent and voluntary participation, privacy, confidentiality and anonymity, and finally, conflicts of interest. It is vital that an experiment, survey, or interview do not harm the participants in the study. For example, even in an interview the types of questions asked need to be considered carefully, they cannot be harmful in a way that distresses or embarrasses the participant (De Vaus p. 61). Another major component to be considered is that a participant’s involvement in the study needs to be voluntary and therefore informed consent needs to be provided by the participant before being involved (Walter 2013, p. 79). These principles can sometimes make research difficult to conduct as ethics can be breached and therefore until the issue is resolved, or a component of the study eliminated or change, so not to be harmful to the participant, the study cannot be conducted.

Ashleigh Balmer said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Ethics protects both the researcher and participants. They are morals standards that govern behaviour in a group or setting, they that must be followed when conducting research (Habibis, D. 2013, pp73). The key principals include, do not harm, informed consent and voluntary participation, privacy, confidentiality and anonymity and conflicts of interest. Safety of the both the research and the participant must be considered when doing research. There are many types of risks these include harmful interventions, harmful questions, breach of privacy and vulnerable groups. It is important to make sure questions are not too sensitive and to identify groups that’s could be psychosocially harmed. Informed consent is important part when conducting any type of research that the participants are fully informed about what the research is going to involve and what’s it’s about. It must be the participant choice to do signed to consent for no formal or informal coercion. Privacy is essential, it is important to protect the participant’s identification and contributions made by the participant cannot be identified. When conducting survey’s compromise needs to be made between the public good and the rights of individuals to not participate (Patulny, R. 2018). Researcher must take into account what the researcher needs and what the researched need. Each one of these key principals have challenges. Ethics is a necessary part when conducting any type of research the participant must be protected.

Hamish Starr said : Guest Report 5 months ago

The principles of ethical research as outlined by the ACFID are as follows: respect, beneficence, merit and justice. Respect is for all human beings, recognising their intrinsic value and being mindful of other’s culture, religion and customs as well as ensuring that participants have informed consent. Beneficence ensures that the research will be benefit the participants and society as a whole. It also includes making sure no harm comes to participants or the researchers themselves whilst undertaking research. To have merit, research must be warranted and undertaken by those with necessary expertise and proficiency and. Integrity must also be maintained by showing a sincere effort in gaining knowledge and understanding of people and societies. Lastly researchers should be certain the research is just and equitable, by treating everyone involved with dignity and not being discriminatory towards anyone. It requires that all findings be made accessible and understandable, as quickly as possible, for participants and others. Not adhering to these principles is cause for concern as researchers although it can be hard to always follow these principles under certain circumstances. For example, even with informed consent, a respondent may decide they do not want their data used in a survey, but if the survey is anonymous the data is irretrievable, creating an ethical issue of sorts. In this case, it may be impossible to make the participant happy without destroying all the data. It can be hard to remain ethical, but researchers must strive to follow these guidelines.

Rebecca Teodoro said : Guest Report 5 months ago

According to Habibis (2013) “Ethical research ensures that ethical principles and values always govern research involving humans”. Ethical principles have been enforced, in relation to research involving human beings, as a set of ethical morals central to the behaviour’s of individuals which fall inside a specific group. According to the Belmont Report research involving human beings can be categorized into four fundamental values in which have been implemented, these include the ideal notions of ‘merit and integrity’, ‘justice’, ‘beneficence’ and ‘respect’. (Habibis, 2013). With this foundation the creation of the Nuremberg Code was established in 1947, which was comprised of 10 ethical principles that were heavily implemented when it came to any variance of human experimentation. This code built the fundamental key principles for knowledgeable consent, lack of force, correctly articulated scientific research, and benevolence towards research partakers (Annas & Grodin, 2008). The Nuremberg codes main aim is the assistance and aid in combatting the challenges faced in ethical research, which can be viewed as protecting an individual’s right to have power over his or her own body, as well as placing an emphasis that contrary to the anticipated benefit there may be risk that outweighs it and a clear focus on a prevention of unwarranted pain and suffering in which might be inflicted on an individual during the research process. With these challenges being faced it is key that research outcomes remain genuine and are used effectively, as well as maintaining a duty of care when it comes to the individuals involved in the research as their safely should essentially be of top priority. #S234uow18 #Lab11 #Mon430 Annas, G.J. and Grodin, M.A., 2008. The Nuremberg code. In The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics pp. 136-140. New York: Oxford University Press. Habibis, D 2013 ‘Ethics and Social Research’, Chapter 4 in Walter, Maggie Social Research Methods 3rd Edition pp.72-98 South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Elena Kantarovska said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Due to research’s pervasive nature there is great risk of harm to individuals (Resnik 2017). In order to combat physical and psychological harm, multiple principles have recently been introduced to minimise and abolish these risks. The Nuremberg code must be adhered to by all research efforts (Moreno, Schmidt & Joffe 2017). The code entails 10 specific directives to ensure safety of researchers and research participants (Moreno, Schmidt & Joffe 2018). It perfectly summarises all principles necessary in keeping every individual involved in research safe. Entailed within the 10 principles are matters of specific concern for research such as the insurance of no harm, informed consent and voluntary participation as well as confidentiality and privacy insurance. All such principles cohesively summarise the principles of ethical research. Whilst these principles are entirely necessary and essential for safety for all participants involved in research, there are challenges ethical research brings. Research can often be halted, slowed or nullified by these ethical boundaries (Gontcharov & Macdonald 2016). When dealing particularly with vulnerable groups questions must be phrased particularly and lack of beneficial information can be gained. Ethical research is also tedious, with multiple meetings with boards, agencies and committees, significantly slowing the research process down. The challenges of ethical research however do not trump the benefits or ethical research. Although progress may be slow or unfruitful, ethical research is entirely necessary in ensuring safety for all participants. References: Gontcharov, I, & MacDonald, L 2016, 'Alternative models of ethical governance: The 2016 New Brunswick-Otago declaration on research ethics', New Zealand Sociology, vol. 1, no. 4, p. 56. Moreno, JD, Schmidt, U, & Joffe, S 2017, 'The Nuremberg Code 70 Years Later', Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 318, no. 9, pp. 795-796. Moreno, JD, Schmidt, U, & Joffe, S 2018, 'The Nuremberg Code and Informed Consent for Research-Reply', Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 319, no. 1, p. 86. Resnik, DB 2017, 'The Role of Intuition in Risk/Benefit Decision-Making in Human Subjects Research', Accountability In Research-Policies And Quality Assurance, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 1-29.

Xanthe Catt said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Ethical research need to include a clear understanding of the research process where commitment to the construction and development of the project is seen through critical analysis of the literature. The vast range of methods within research are vital and can include in-depth interviews, focus groups and data. Due to the social nature of social research, human experience can make research complex as people are often unpredictable and ambiguous, and due to societies being ever changing our results may no longer be applicable in the near future. Other challenges and considerations include the 'Hawthorne effect' and cultural assumptions wherein ignorance towards a cultural barrier may make for presupposition. The key aims within social research are to identify, explore and look for social patterns and social meaning in order to uncover inaccurate assumptions made about our world. There are three core levels of social research which include exploratory, descriptive and explanatory research. Due to the nature of social research, it often does not fall neatly into one category, but rather uses all to form holistic explanations for social phenomenon. When researching, one’s methodology explains the world view in which the research is undertaken. Their stand point and social position helps to create their methodology and influence their theoretical framework. When creating a methodology key components include social position, axiology, epistemology and ontology. These also influence the research method taken by the individual. Data collection and analysis comes at the end of the research project, and includes empirical data and social theory. Ultimately all methods taken will have positives and negatives, but it is key to remember no matter what method is chosen, it has to relate to the topic and question posed.

Anna Lewis 5151314 said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Relevant to the Nuremberg code, there are 10 key principles of ethical research. These guidelines serve as a form of protection for all participants who undergo research. Some of these principles include Voluntary consent or informed consent that provides documentation that the participant is agreeing to the terms of the research study. One example of this principle being breached is with Facebook. The social medial platform was accused of accessing the data of its users and exercising it to manipulate their newsfeed. (Hunter, D. 2014) This was considered a breach of consent as although when signing up to the platform informs the user that their data may be used, it does not tell them how it will be used. This non-consensual use of the users data spiked concern, as it essentially also became a breach of privacy for the user. To ensure that the company is abiding by appropriate ethical practices, complete informed consent must be fulfilled. (Marker, D.A. Martic, J. 2007, pp2216). Informed consent involves advising the participation of the purpose of the research, what is involved in the research, how long the research will take, the risks involved in participation and 8 other points of information (Patulny, R. 2018). Informed consent is the baseline when it comes to conducting ethical research, without consent essentially there is no research to be conducted; this is to protect both the participant and the researcher. There any many other principles of ethical research but I believe that informed consent is the most important first step out of them all. Hunter, D. 2014, ‘Consent and ethics in Facebook’s manipulation study’, The Conservation, 1/7/14. Marker, D.A. Martin, J. 2007, ‘Informed consent: Interpretations and practice on social surveys, Social Science and Medicine, vol.65, no.1, pp.2260-2217. Patulny, R. 2018, ‘Lecture 12: Research Ethics’, SOC234- Social Research Methods 2018, accessed at: https://moodle.uowplatform.edu.au/pluginfile.php/1231308/mod_resource/content/5/SOC234Week12-ethics.pdf 20th May 2018.

Mikayla Reid said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Daphne Habibis explains that ‘ethical research is concerned with ensuring that ethical principles and values govern research involving humans.’ When ethics are being considered, the concern shifts from focusing on the project to the stakeholders; the participants, the researcher and broader communities involved according to Habibis. There are several key principles a sociological researcher must consider in order for their research to be deemed ethical. These principles are put in place in order to protect participants and to ensure that the data collected from the research is valid. Some of these principles are covered by the nuremberg code which dictates several principles a researcher needs to abide by. These include voluntary consent, to avoid all unnecessary physical and mental injury, and that the subject is able to end the experiment whenever they wish it to end. It is the researchers job to keep these principles in mind, but to also revise the kinds of risks that they need to avoid. These include harmful interventions where participants are unethically recruited, harmful questions that may cause distress, breach of privacy when confidential information is not disclosed and finally, vulnerable groups that are at risk by participating in the research. An example of unethical research comes from David Hunter from Flinders University who describes Facebook’s social experiment that went wrong. The research being carried out but the ‘social media giant’ involved manipulating newsfeed of users without informing the users of the alteration. Hunter explains that in order for Facebook to access and manipulate the data the researchers needed to acquire consent from the 689,003 users that were unknowingly involved.

Christopher Sargent said : Guest Report 5 months ago

There are five key principles to keep in mind when conducting ethical research. The first is to reduce the risk of harm to participants in all senses, meaning, financially, socially, psychologically or physically. The second principle is obtaining informed consent, which means participants are fully aware they are being researched and the nature of the research they are a part of. Principle three is avoiding deceptive practices, i.e. being honest to participants and disclosing all information regarding your research intentions. The fourth principle is to protect anonymity and confidentiality of your participants and the responses and statistics they provide. This is to ensure that people’s privacy is protected as well as to alleviate risk of discrimination when examining results based on a particular participant. The final key principle of ethical research is providing the right to withdraw; this is so that participants are not ‘trapped’ at any point and allows them a much more comfortable and safe research setting. This is also important as if the research is causing any type of harm to the participant or they simply don’t want to participate anymore they should have the right to remove themselves. The ethical challenges associated with research often come when these key principles are not abided by or, for example if the participants do not have informed consent, or in some research studies a covert method is needed. This arises problems with both informed consent, and deceptive research, additionally if the research subject does not know they are being researched they can’t withdraw.

Ashliegh Heritage said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Research that aims to be a relevant study and ethical is a complex balancing act. What is considered ethical and morally appropriate to one researcher may not be to another. Whilst there are many ethical codes and organisations, such as the Australian Sociological Association which aims at preventing immoral research through creating a streamline set of ethical frameworks; these frameworks may in fact contribute to the intricacies of ethical research. It is acknowledged that there are many considerations researchers must take in account to ensure that ethical principles and values continue to govern humanitarian research, however gaining informed consent from participants and providing adequate safety measures for participants safety and confidentiality is of utmost importance (Habibis 2013: 73). The Nuremberg Code (1949) is a contradiction in itself; which firstly states that voluntary consent of participants is required; theoretically alluding to most ethnographic research being unethical (Habibis 2013). However, the Code also states that where results from studies are ‘good’ for society, they then become classified as ethical. The contradiction of these principles was outlined in Laud Humphrey’s ethnographic ‘Tearoom Trade’ study (1975) where no consent was given by participants, and if the personal information were released, it would have caused extensive harm to these ‘vulnerable’ participants (Stuart 2001: 34). Nevertheless, its results were ‘good’ in a sense that is de-stigmatized homosexual men. Furthermore, this contradiction was recently displayed in the 2014 ‘Facebook: Emotional Manipulation Study’ (Krammer et al., 2014) where researchers received severe persecution by fellow colleagues, such as Catherine Flick for not having ‘sufficient ethical oversight’ and neglecting the importance of informed consent from participants (Flick 2016: 14). Thus, researchers face complex decisions when undertaking research projects due to the contradictory nature of various ethical social codes of practices and its interpretations by researchers. References: Flick, C (2016) ‘Informed Consent and the Facebook emotional manipulation study’ Research Ethics, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 14-28. Habibis, D (2013) ‘Ethics and Social Research’, Chapter 4 in Walter, Maggie (ed.). (2013). Social Research Methods. 3rd Edition. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, p72-98. Humphrey, L (1970) Tearoom Trade: Impersonal Sex in Public Places, New Brunswick: Aldine Transaction Publications. Kramer ADI, Guillory, JE and Hancock, JT (2014) ‘Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks’. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 111, no. 24, pp. 8788-8790. Stuart, G (2001) ‘Are you old enough? Research ethics and young people’ Youth Studies America vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 34-39.

Nicole Mastroianni said : Guest Report 5 months ago

The establishment of a set of moral standards that govern behaviour in a particular setting of for a particular group can be defined as ethics (Habibis 2013.) The main concept of research ethics is to reduce risks and enhance safety of respondents while managing research to advocate for a variety of social and moral values. It is important to consider human rights as the lack of ethics can potentially detriment respondents. We can use the Stanford Prison Experiment as an example of a harmful intervention (Patulny,2018) Organised by Philip Zimbardo in 1971. Volunteers were given roles as prisoners and guards in a fake prison. Guards because physically aggressive, erratic and dehumanising of prisoners. The experiment was ceased after six days. The study uncovered the important aspects of ethics in relation to the dehumanising effects of the study. The was an obvious misunderstanding between the roles of the participants and the researcher as a result of little warning and training. It is imperative to ensure that participants do not feel encouraged or manipulated into research. We can do this by advertising in ways where subjects do not feel forced to ensure participation is voluntary. It is critical not to display any form of bias in research toward a certain topic. The researcher will have their own views on a certain topic but must not make this obvious to the respondent as they will feel as if they have to answer with what the respondent wants to hear, or feel uncomfortable sharing their own views leading to invalid responses as they may not be true. Research ethics encourage respect and collaboration resulting in appropriate and accurate answers from participants to further enhance studies. REFERENCES Habibis. D, 2013, Social research methods, Ethics and social research, Oxford, Victoria, P.73-90 Patulny. R, 2018, PowerPoint slides, Lecture 12: Research Ethics, SOC234, University of Wollongong, Viewed 17/05/18. YouTube, 2013, Stanford prison experiment, Online video, 29 October Jo Taylor, Viewed 20/05/18

Georgina Bolam Gannon said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Any type of research needs to comply to a guideline of basic ethics, and complex ethical guidelines set by committees or funding bodies involved in the research. This is to ensure that any research doesn’t cause harm, in any manner, to the participants. The basic guideline of ethics is known as the Nuremberg Code, and it has 10 rules with which any research must abide (Habibis, 2013. p. 75). These 10 rules can be boiled down into 3 main points, with the first being ethical principles and encompassing the Nuremberg Code. The second is ‘do no harm’ meaning any type of harm, from physical to mental, as well as protecting anonymity of participants, also being wary of harmful questions and sensitive topics. The third is ‘informed consent and voluntary participation’, which is making sure all participants are informed about the research, consent voluntarily and are able to take back that consent and participation at any time. Although this may seem straightforward, there can be challenges that arise within ideas such as voluntary participation. Daphne Habibis poses an interesting scenario where a doctor can ask a patient in hospital to fill out a consent form for research, but both the setting and power relationship means that the doctor could, without knowing, be coercive (2013, p.90). A way around this could be for the potential participant contact the researcher, such as in postal or social media surveys. However, this is not always possible and that is why a consent form outlying the risks and guidelines of ethics exists, so as a researcher, you can be sure you are producing ethical research.

Jaqueline Quintanilla said : Guest Report 5 months ago

To be labelled as ethical research the researcher is tasked with upholding the key values regarding ‘research merit and integrity, Justice, beneficence, respect for human beings’ (Habibis 2013, 77). This includes adherence to the Nuremberg Code that was established in 1949, the extremely unethical experiments on Jewish people during the Nazi regime. It has remained an essential code that, underpins contemporary research on humans and outlines the ‘basic principles for ethical research’ (Habibis 2013, p.75) gaining the recognition of the ‘Human Research Ethics Committee’ if a study is characterised by considerable risks. Initially, the research must overcome the challenges of ‘informed consent’ (Habibis 2013, p.77) pertaining to studies conducted on ‘vulnerable participant groups’ (Habibis 2013, p.84) that are part of the ‘uneven power relations’ (Habibis 2013, p.73) determined by the expert knowledge of the researcher and the limited knowledge of vulnerable groups like children and people of low income. This can be overcome through a written or oral agreement that is based on an understanding of ‘sufficient information’ (Habibis 2013, p.79) about the study. In the case of a survey, of a completed questionnaire. Also, the key principles including, respect for human beings is embedded in the maintenance of anonymity and confidentiality of the research participants especially for ethnographic studies where, the ‘covert research methods’ (Habibis 2013, p.76) employed, are at risk of endangering the safety and of participants and the researcher. For instance, the study by Martin Rimm, on the internet use of students at Carnegie Mellon University, that raised issues of, ‘invasion of privacy’ (Habibis 2013, p.72) especially when pornography was involved and the power of the researcher to access the personal information of the users. Habibis, D (2013) ‘Ethics and Social Research’, Chapter 4 in Walter, Maggie (ed.). (2013). Social Research Methods. 3rd Edition. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, p72-98

Taylah Todoroski said : Guest Report 5 months ago

One of the major principles of ethical research is the rule of informed consent. According to MarFn and Marker (2007), all the participants of a research should be volunteers and should be fully informed of the probable risks and benefits that may result from the research activities. Federal standards require that every participant should have all the information which may influence their willingness to participate or not participate in the research (MarFn and Marker, 2007). Secondly, the principle of privacy and confidentiality should be of great consideration in the research. Roy, Black and McPeek (1991) state that researchers are required to devise methods of asking the participants on their willingness to talk about sensitive issues that may affect their privacy. Additionally, researchers should discuss with the participants on how the information they offer will be used and the people who will have access to the information. It is against the research code of ethics to share information that may cause physical or mental harm to the participants. Another principle of research is the conflict of interest. Researchers are required to compromise between an individual's right of not participating and the public good. The major challenges in ethical research are the conflict of interest (Minkler, 2004). According to Minkler (2004), a researcher may be torn between the public good of the research and the privacy rights of an individual. Secondly, researchers find it a challenge complying with the federal and state laws that creates boundaries in the access of particular information. Last but not least, a major challenge is on the issue of who to give credit to some information that has multiple authors. References: MarFn, J. and Marker, D. (2007) "Informed Consent: Interpretafons and Pracfce on Social Surveys", Social Science & Medicine 65: 2260-2271 Minkler, M. (2004). Ethical Challenges for the "Outside" Researcher in Community-Based Participatory Research. Health Education & Behavior, 31(6), 684-697. Roy, D. J., Black, P. M., & McPeek, B. (1991). Ethical Principles in Research. In Principles and Practice of Research (pp. 91-103). Springer, New York, NY.

Ashlea Pellow said : Guest Report 8 months ago

There is much complexity to the nature of social research because of the following reasons (Walter 2013, p. 5). Ethics challenge social research because we are humans studying other humans and it is virtually impossible to remain unbiased while conducting our research. Therefore boundaries and limitations are set by HREC as a way of protection (Walter 2013, p. 5). Social and personal change is another challenge that is faced when it comes to social research. Because society and social issues are constantly changing there are no guarantees that the research we conduct today will be relevant tomorrow (Walter 2013, p. 5). As social research is focused on understanding social patterns and social meanings (Walter 2013, p. 7), this is an important factor we must take into consideration. The key principles of ethical research are outlines as follows. As defined by Walter (2013, p. 10), "methodology is the worldview lens through which the research question and the core concepts are viewed….". The core components to methodology are our standpoint, our theoretical framework and paradigm, and our method (Walter 2013, p. 10). Our standpoint is guided by our social positon, theory of knowledge, theory of values and theory of being (Walter 2013, p. 11). Our analysis of social theory and data make up the conceptual framework while the method is the final component of our methodology. The most important factor of the research method is that the method must suit the research topic and question (Walter 2013, p. 19). Walter, M, 2013, Social Research Methods, 3rd Edn, Oxford University Press, South Melbourne

Xanthe Catt said : Guest Report 8 months ago

Ethical research need to include a clear understanding of the research process where commitment to the construction and development of the project is seen through critical analysis of the literature. The vast range of methods within research are vital and can include in-depth interviews, focus groups and data. Due to the social nature of social research, human experience can make research complex as people are often unpredictable and ambiguous, and due to societies being ever changing our results may no longer be applicable in the near future. Other challenges and considerations include the 'Hawthorne effect' and cultural assumptions wherein ignorance towards a cultural barrier may make for presupposition. The key aims within social research are to identify, explore and look for social patterns and social meaning in order to uncover inaccurate assumptions made about our world. There are three core levels of social research which include exploratory, descriptive and explanatory research. Due to the nature of social research, it often does not fall neatly into one category, but rather uses all to form holistic explanations for social phenomenon. When researching, one’s methodology explains the world view in which the research is undertaken. Their stand point and social position helps to create their methodology and influence their theoretical framework. When creating a methodology key components include social position, axiology, epistemology and ontology. These also influence the research method taken by the individual. Data collection and analysis comes at the end of the research project, and includes empirical data and social theory. Ultimately all methods taken will have positives and negatives, but it is key to remember no matter what method is chosen, it has to relate to the topic and question posed.

Mikayla Levis said : Guest Report 8 months ago

In order to conduct ethical research, it is important to understand that method and the theoretical paradigm match the proposed research question. It is important that the research understands the topic so that they can then correctly inform their participants of the risks involved, as well as, where and how the results are going to be used for the research. It is important to note how different methods can provide different sets of data in research, and have different uses and ethical boundaries. Qualitative methods encompass more ethical concerns are they are aimed to finding out in-depth knowledge of the human experience and therefore, can cause discomfort for participants as they can be seen as intrusive. In order to overcome this, research must use loose sets of questions that can be adapted to each individual participant. Quantitative methods on the other hand, provide numerical values however, can be broad sweeping, therefore, can lose the meaning of the research question. Researchers are always faced with ethical concerns and limitations when undertaking a study, we should be aiming to reduce unethical methods of study and questions rather than eradicating it completely.

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