SOC344 2018 Tut2 – Mon 16.30pm

We have long conceived of a separation between mind and body in western society, with supremacy of mind over body. This basic idea that reason should dominate is captured in the classic statement by Descartes ‘cogito ergo sum’, ‘I think, therefore I am’. However, if your thoughts are affected by your bodily feelings, or even your perceptions of how the society around you sees you, then what are you? What are your thoughts? Are they really separate from your body and your feelings? And do we have a better understanding of the relationship between reason and emotion as a society today? Compare Disney’s take on the role of emotions in human action in 1943 and in 2015 (and note that the producers of the 2015 ‘Inside Out’ film considered including ‘logic’ as an emotion, but later decided to drop it). Which of these depictions makes more sense to you?

#S344UOW18  #Tut2  #Mon1630

Posted in SOC327 - Emotions Bodies and Society.

16 Comments on SOC344 2018 Tut2 – Mon 16.30pm

Lauren Hilton said : Guest Report 5 months ago

The idea that a person’s thoughts are unconnected to their body and feelings doesn’t resonate with my understanding of how we, as humans work. The connection between emotion and reason is vast, and was once viewed as a conventional approach, but has since altered to more radical viewpoints overtime. As seen in the 2015 Disney film ‘Inside Out’, it identifies how emotions are not separate from reason and that the basic emotions are essential in daily life for individual’s to grow and learn. However there are still limitations, especially in regards to how different emotions may result in different reasoning, depending upon the person. Nevertheless, personally it still portrays a much more plausible notion to that of Barbalet’s (1998) in which the theory was that emotion and rationality are not connected. Yet it was stated in some instances that “emotions need not oppose reason so much as give it direction” (Barbalet p. 31), portraying the idea they are different but can unite to form an outcome of some sort. #S344UOW18#TUT2#Mon1630

Michaela Matthews said : Guest Report 5 months ago

The connection between reason and emotion has developed over time allowing society to have a better understanding of this relationship. The disney film 'Reason and Emotion' shows a clear dualism between the two, demonstrating 'The Conventional Approach'. The film places ‘reason’ as the most important aspect when it come to decision making, and suggests that our emotions can overtake our common sense. I’ve had experiences when my emotions have taken over my thoughts, for instance when I get a piercing I have a constant irrational fear in my mind. However the situation is never as bad as I think it will be, but the fear never goes away. This supports western history theories where the mind was placed before our emotions and rationality was always the answer. The more recent Disney film ‘Inside Out,’ demonstrates ‘The Radical Approach.’ The characters in the film depict our main emotions, showing them working together in a young girls body. I was glad to hear that logic was dropped from the film as it allows the viewer to see emotions separate from the mind. This approach appeals to me the most as Barbalet suggests rationality and emotions are continuous because we are experiencing emotions while we are rationally calculating (Barbelet 1998). There’s usually an emotional reason behind a rational decision. For instance, my reason behind being afraid of a piercing is because it causes pain. We often rely on our intuition in uncertain situations, we don’t always calculate how to handle a situation. As it’s often said, ’trust your gut’, which in most cases it is usually correct and can benefit us more then taking a formal rational approach. ##S344UOW18  #Tut2  #Mon1630 Barbalet, J.M. 1998 Emotion, Social Theory, and Social Structure: A Macrosociological Approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Patulny, R. 2018 Lecture 2: The Mind/Body Split (5.3.18)

Lara Graf said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Reason tells us how we think whereas emotion tells us how we feel. We use our bodies to display our emotions and show how we feel. For example, if a person is upset and sad it may manifest through the mind with sad thoughts and through the body with unhappy facial expressions and crying. More importance has been put on using reason rather than emotion when we make decisions over time which can be seen in the Disney film, ‘Reason and Emotion’ (1943) portrays the relationship our mind has with reason and emotion and the conflict that continues from infancy to adulthood. In infancy, emotion rules our mind as we have not yet developed the skills of rational thought so our thought process is more about how we “feel” whereas in adulthood we let reason rule as we have now developed reason and our thought process is about “thinking” and making rational decisions. In Disney’s film, ‘Inside Out’ (2015), it depicts the relationship Riley has with her emotions and how that manifests itself through her mind and body. We see the evolution of Disney how they have depicted emotions in this film compared with its earlier work discussed earlier. This film shows a better approach to how we should feel about emotion, if a little Disneyfied, which I think has happened in our society as well. It’s ok to use both emotion and reason when making decisions as it can provide us with a more comprehensive solution. Barbalet (1998) discussed different approaches to how we understand emotion and rationality and in the two films discussed earlier ‘Reason and Emotion’ (1943) and ‘Inside Out’ (2015) we can see two of them. ‘Reason and Emotion’ (1943) represents the conventional approach to reason and emotion as it shows reason and emotion are at odds with each other whereas ‘Inside Out’ (2015) which represents the critical approach as it shows reason and emotion can be complements. Barbalet, J (1998) Emotion, Social Theory, and Social Structure: A Macro Sociological Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 2, Emotion and Rationality, p29-61 Inside Out trailer #2 (2015) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=seMwpP0yeu4 Patulny, R (2018) The Mind/Body Split lecture SOC344: Emotions, Bodies and Society University of Wollongong delivered 5 March Reason and Emotion (1943) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nvp3zAPraF4 #S344UOW18#Tut2#Mon1630

Orion Leppan Taylor said : Guest Report 5 months ago

I think the Humean perspective is the most eloquent when explaining the relationship between emotions and rationality. Hume's basic perspective is that emotions or "passions" as he refers to them, are what drive our motivation. They make us care about things, set our values and thus establish our goals for our lives. Reason and logic are tools that we can use to achieve our values, but we cannot derive what our goals should be from reason alone. It's not any more logical to work hard at uni to achieve your dream of becoming a scientist in a difficult field, than it is to choose a relaxed lifestyle working at a small business and spending the rest of your free time surfing. Both of those decisions are driven by your passions, or emotions. A further example is a study that was carried out by Antonio Damasio and others titled "Decision-making processes following damage to the prefrontal cortex", where it was found that persons with damage to the pre-frontal cortex, an area of the brain closely related to emotions, had significant difficult making basic decisions, such as which shirt to wear. This demonstrates that without adequate emotional or "passionate" drive, we have nothing to motivate the decisions in our lives. #S344UOW18 #Mon1630 #Tut2 (Link to discussion of Damasio's work: http://bigthink.com/experts-corner/decisions-are-emotional-not-logical-the-neuroscience-behind-decision-making)

Benoit Tuffy said : Guest Report 5 months ago

As stated by Patulny (2018) “Emotions are feelings experienced in the body, stimulated by the environment and recognisable by labels”. Throughout history, varying approaches have been taken in identifying and detailing the relationship or lack thereof, between reason and emotion. Conventional approaches advocate the notion of rationalism, emphasising rationality over emotion, thus being centred on the motifs of knowledge and reason. Such a perspective is exemplified by Descartes’ statement, ‘cogito ergo sum’, ‘I think, therefore I am’. Contrastingly, modern radical perspectives hold the view that such a split between the mind and the body does not exist but rather is a continual symbiotic process, as is depicted in Disneys 'Inside Out' (2015). Furthermore, as stated by Barbalet (1998, p45), “reason and emotion are not opposed phenomena but... a continuous process”. Indeed, I find it much more relevant to recognise the significant interconnectedness that emotion and reason share, however it is worth noting that such frameworks fall within certain contexts. For example, there are social situations where ‘emotion’ can cause us to lose control of our reason and thus behave in an unpredictable manner. Barbalet, J.M. (1998) Emotion, Social Theory, and Social Structure: A Macrosociological Approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Patulny, R, 2018, Lecture 2 the mind/body split. Powerpoint. Emotions, bodies and society SOC344. University of Wollongong. Viewed 10/03/18. #S344UOW18 #Tut2 #Mon1630

Sophie Washington said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Disney’s different takes of emotion and reason illustrate that society’s understanding of the interrelationship between the two has significantly changed. The perceived need for separation of the two depicted in Disney’s 1943 take, has been overshadowed by the reality of their interconnectedness and the importance of emotion to aid reason. As clarified by the critical approach; taking the view that emotion supports reason (Barbalet, 1998), ‘reason is constituted of particular emotions’ (Hume, 1740, as cited in Barbalet, 1998, p. 31), this linking with Aristotle’s ‘Virtues and Vices’ (Patulny, 2018). From this view, it is suggested that emotion gives meaning to reason, it influences and therefore can explain an individual’s reasoning. Emotion and reason are inherently interconnected, with it difficult to ever truly separate emotion from reason (Barbalet, 1998). The control individuals hold is rather with the level of influence emotion has over reason, as noted in lecture week two, there are circumstances that will induce a more emotional level of reasoning (Patulny, 2018). Emotion will always contribute to reason, but the real question is, as explored by Virginia Hughes (2014)

Jarrod Wilson said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Over time the general consensus on the approach towards body/mind and emotions has taken a turn. At the foundation of the studies the belief was more that the mind was superior and that emotions would get in the way and interfere with rational decision making however as numerous studies have been undertaken and more insight has been provided we have begin to see opinions differ and move away from this particular perspective. The idea that those who acted on emotion rather than due process was often implemented on indigenous peoples as they were believed to be inferior and were therefore classified into the category of thinking with emotions or concrete thinking. This is demonstrated in J.M.Blaut’s ’The colonizers of the world” in a similar fashion to that of Aristotle’s Virtues and Vices discussed in the lecture from week 2. As times have progressed the critical and radical approaches have gained more traction and have began to draw more attention from sociologists and others in similar fields. I personally tend to align in between critical and radical acknowledging that emotions are an important physical and mental reaction however can vary on a positive or negative impact depending on the circumstances that coincide. Barbalet, J (1998) Emotion, Social Theory, and Social Structure: A Macrosociological Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 2, Emotion and Rationality, p29-61 James, W. (1950) Chapter 25 ‘The Emotions’ in The Principles of Psychology. J.M. Blaut, The Colonizers Model of the World, New York: Guildford Press, 1993, p. 17. #S344UOW18 #Mon1630 #Tut2

Brittany Gratzer said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Aristotles virtues and vices shows how certain emotions can influence the control over the body (Patulny, slide 10, 2018). This also helps to show how society influences people reactions to an emotion. For example, if an individual feels fear they would have the fight of flight reaction, however in society the flight reaction is often seen as cowardice so as not to feel guilty about flight they may choose to fight. I believe that the mind and the body work together to help achieve survival, this means in some situations the emotions can trigger certain responses as well as vice versa. Disney has shown the progression of society in their understanding between reason and emotion through their 1943 cartoon Reason and emotion which shows that there is a battle between reason and emotion. However, in the 2015 cartoon ‘inside out’ where the 5 emotions are working together to show the mind and body split, due to emotions controlling everything without the young girl being aware. Reference list Patulny, R, 2018, Lecture 2 the mind/body split. Powerpoint. Emotions, bodies and society SOC344. University of Wollongong. Viewed 11/03/18.

Bethany Self said : Guest Report 5 months ago

It cannot be denied that mind over body is a pleasant thought. It is in our controlling nature to think that the way we feel is in our own hands. But as we learn about body feelings’ control over our thoughts, it becomes clear that our minds are out of our own control on a greater scale than originally expected. Because our thoughts are affected by our bodily feelings, it is proven that mental health stems from a place that is more connected to our body chemistry than a choice (as it is commonly believed). As Barbalet states: “reason is itself is constituted of particular emotions” (Barbalet 1998, p.30); this can be seen in most choices that are made as humans. If we are feeling extremely sad about a given situation, we shall not act upon this in the same way as if our bodies were telling us we were ecstatic about given situation. Thus, whatever ‘rational’ decision we make it still influenced by what our body feels, and the desired outcomes of our rationality is driven by what we want our emotions to be. In Disney’s ‘inside out,’ logic could have been dropped as an emotion because logic itself is an outcome of the emotions. According to the conventional approach, there is opposition between emotion and rationality, making it clear that there is a divide between the two (Barbalet 1998, p.33).

Stella Crick said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Emotions are feelings experienced in the body, stimulated by the environment and recognisable by labels (Patulny, 2018). Descarte’s pioneered for the way of thinking that mind and body are separate, with power commonly placed on mind, he suggested this through his quote translating to “I think, therefore I am” (Patulny, 2018). Disney’s 1943 clip ‘Reason and Emotion’ followed the conventional approach (Barbalet, 1998, p29, 31), visually portraying through humorous exaggeration the constant battle for supremacy between reason (mind) and emotion (body) (Uhfotis, 2007). However, evolution and neuro-science theories later discredited the mind and body split (Patulny, 2018). Schnall proposes we are our emotions, perceiving everything in our environment as a reflection of our internal state, and acting upon them (Tedx Talks, 2014). Almost 70 years later, Disney’s stance on the mind and body relationship takes on this radical approach (Barbalet, 1998, p45), ‘Inside Out’ from 2015 supported that we are our emotions (Movieclips Trailers 2015). Perhaps Disney was adopting Ekman’s positivist theory, by creating 6 universal emotions/characters which lived inside the protagonists head, producing varied actions depending on which emotion was in play at a particular time. Interestingly the emotion ‘Logic’ (named Reason) didn’t make the film’s cut (Romano, 2016). This suggests that mind isn’t dominant over the body. To me, the later Disney depiction makes more sense, however thinking about this power struggle, I’ve realised weaknesses in the positivist theory; we just have to look at how people communicate globally on social media using just emoji’s to convey a message, surely there’s more than 6 universal feelings? #S344UOW18 #Tut2 #Mon1630

Samantha Waters said : Guest Report 5 months ago

From the moment we draw breath, we experience emotion, yet lack conscious thought to process these emotions. Once emotions begin to develop, so to, does conscious thought and our understanding of emotions. Primarily as children, we are driven by emotions almost whole heartedly. We can think, yet reason is only dictated by our emotional interpretation of the present situation. This is explored in the Film ‘inside out’ by Disney Pixar. As the protagonist moves through different situations, her emotions battle with each other to create reason of situations (usually to no avail, with one emotion overriding the others to control actions). as we begin to mature, we develop an intelligence about our emotions (usually referred to as reason). We see this transition between the two in four representations, both Disney representations (the propaganda and inside out), however also the short film “Inner Workings” which represents how the mind interprets emotions as risky, and so does what it can to reason against them, leading to a boring life, but when in harmony, life is brilliant. In the film “The Greatest Showman”. P.T. Barnum begins only being driven by emotions as a child, as an adult he is only driven by reason, until he finds, and creates, his dream (emotion and reason working in harmony). The mind is seen as the main driving force throughout life for decision making about self-preservation. Yet emotions play a vital role in survival through the fight or flight reflex. #S344UOW18 #Tut2 #Mon1630 Inner Workings Video: https://www.facebook.com/origtravel/videos/1880261198711679/ The Greatest Showman Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jr9QtXwC9vc

Amit Anand said : Guest Report 5 months ago

#S344UOW18 #Tut3 #Mon1630 The origins of the mind and body spilt were originally invented with a believe of dualism and cardinal humours which explained the formation of human body and various emotions in reality. We know from the lectures how emotions have been socially constructed and the conventional dualism of mind over emotion or body began to be undermined in modernity as both influenced mind and emotion. In my viewpoint there are three main dominating approaches to the rationality between emotion and reasoning and are identified as the conventional approach, the critical approach (complements) and radical approach (continuous spectrum). However, the conventional approach is which separates the body and upholds that emotion is the opposite of reason (dualism), for example cultural discounting or in discussing ‘background emotions’. The basic ideology behind the importance of reason in society is further explained in a classic statement by Rene Descartes ‘ cogito ergo sum : I think therefor I am. Aspects of emotion and reason are accepted widely and believed as a definition of people as thinking beings entails that individuals exist apart from others, that emotion disrupts reason, and therefore, if people are to remain reasonable, that the influence of emotion must be removed from them. Conversely emotion is regarded as a compelling force, which leads persons away from the decision they make, the reason they have, the choices they take, Leading to an agreement that uncontrolled emotions can cause alot of conflict.

Jessica Baguley said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Emotion, the body and the roles that they play in our daily lives have long been a topic of contentious debate as well as a subject that has generated significant interest. Even Disney, which is often thought of as merely a vehicle for light-hearted entertainment has dealt with some of the key debates, ideas, issues and theories surrounding the human body and emotion. In Disney’s ‘Reason and Emotion’ (1943) a more traditional understanding is displayed. This conventional approach privileged the mind over the body and particularly focused on the value of reason over emotions, with the latter being seen as a mere distraction to the otherwise productive individual (Barbalet 1998). I, like other posters (2018) can acknowledge the merit of the conventional approach but believe that it fails in its inability to acknowledge the symbiotic relationship between emotions, the body and reason. Over time, however, Disney, much like society has evolved its understanding of emotions. This is reflected in the second clip which is from the 2015 film’ Inside Out’ (2015). This film adopts several aspects of key contemporary theories such as Eckman’s positivist ideas regarding the universality of basic emotions. It also incorporates structuralist ideas regarding ‘feeling rules’ and the cultural learning of emotions (Barbalet 1998). It is this model of emotions and bodies that I have a much deeper affinity with. I, like the other commenters in this thread, believe that ‘Inside Out’ (2015) creates a more holistic view of emotions and how they can both influence our bodies and be influenced by them. That being said I tend to disagree with the fact not inflicting logic limits the movies display of reason as both, ‘Joy’ and ‘Sadness’ display reasoning and logical thought throughout the course of the film which is more in line with contemporary critical perspectives and a less in line with Barbalet’s true model (Barbalet, 1998: Patulny 2018b). #S344UOW18 #Mon1630 #Tut2

Britt Pike said : Guest Report 5 months ago

#S344UOW18 #Mon1630 #Tut2 'Reason and Emotion' (1943) represents a 'conventional' approach to emotions and reason. They are opposing forces, emotion being seen as a detriment to reason. The former is connected to primal drives like sex and food. The latter is safe, sane, and learned. In the lecture we discussed how this was accepted throughout most of history, reason linked to the head, and emotions the body. 'Inside Out' (2015) gives us a 'radical' approach to emotions, “reason and emotion are not opposed phenomena but... a continuous process” (Barbalet 1998, p45). Depicted is multiple emotions working together, their actions being what create and define us. The absence of logic as a character implies that reason is an outcome of emotional decision-making, not the driving force. My belief is that the 'radical' approach is the most correct. I see emotions as being our primary driving force behind thoughts and actions, with reason being an outcome of that. This then gives us more stimuli for emotional response, which continues the process. Barbalet, J.M. (1998) Emotion, Social Theory, and Social Structure: A Macrosociological Approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

Kareem Choubassi said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Early philosophers, especially those of the 18th century during the French Revolution who advocated the ideal of rationalism, which is to idealise rationality over spiritual or emotional outlooks and to base opinions on 'reason and knowledge', thus viewing reason as a logical approach to social contexts and emotions as a disturbance which skewed rational thought. This can be described as an origin of the conventional approach which is for rationality to be prioritised and separate from emotion. Other approaches suggest that reason and emotion are interrelated. In my opinion, the relationship between emotions and reason fall into each of these frameworks depending on the social situation, that is to say, in some moments our emotions can 'override' normal judgement or logic and cause excessive or unpredictable implications whereas in other, possibly less significant contexts, emotion and reason are able to work in conjunction in which they are interconnected which assist with reading a social situation. #S344UOW18 #Mon1630 #Tut2

Katy Halverson said : Guest Report 5 months ago

The idea that reason and emotion are clearly separate and that thoughts are superior to emotions comes from early philosophers’ bias towards rationality, efficiency, and control. As discussed in the lecture, early Greeks and Romans viewed the body as a “hinderance to the soul.” One of the main issues with this approach is that it does not recognize the interaction between thoughts and emotions. The Disney short film depicts the human mind as an ongoing conflict between one’s feelings and rationality. It emphasizes that it’s best to keep reason in the driver’s seat, with emotions taking a secondary role. It de-emphasizes the importance of emotions in formulating thoughts. Over time it seems we have shifted past this conventional approach towards more critical and radical views of the mind and body. The critical approach acknowledges that emotions and rationality are “different but mutually supportive,” (Barbalet, 1998). The radical approach claims that emotions and rationality are on the same continuum. My thoughts are somewhat of a combination of these three views. I think thoughts, emotions, and bodily responses are all interrelated, working together to shape who we are. They are all part of the same cyclical process; our emotions triggering “body feelings” or somatic markers, which guide our reactions and thoughts toward a particular stimulus. #S344UOW18 #Mon1630 #Tut2 Reference: Barbalet, J (1998) Emotion, Social Theory, and Social Structure: A Macrosociological Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 2, Emotion and Rationality, p29-61 James, W. (1950) Chapter 25 ‘The Emotions’ in The Principles of Psychology. Available: http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/j/james/william/principles/complete.html#chapter25 Patulny, R (2018) “The Mind/Body Split,” SOC344, University of Wollongong. Viewed 03/06/2018. Reason and Emotion, video recording, YouTube, viewed 03/06/2018.

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