SOC234 2018 Lab11 – Mon 6.30pm

Dear SOC234 Lab,

Please respond to the following question with a reply-post of no more than 250 words:

‘What are the key principles and challenges of ethical research?”

Remember that you will need to post your reply before Lab 11, and don’t forget to look at both the instructions for Tweeting and Blogging and the Lab and Lecture Guide, both up on Moodle.

Thanks and good luck, Roger.

#S234UOW18  #Lab11  #Mon630

Posted in SOC234 - Social Research methods, UOW.

16 Comments on SOC234 2018 Lab11 – Mon 6.30pm

Miyuki Suzuki said : Guest Report 3 months ago

Research is mostly undertaken by common knowledge and individual contribution. It could be a policy nor practice and to the wellbeing of the people who participate in that. Meanwhile, a deliberation on ethical issues in research a polarisation of research into qualitative and quantitative is not particularly required because ethical issues mostly cut across the qualitative-quantitative divide (Halai 2006). According to Halai and lecture slides, we can consider five key ethical principles: a) informed and voluntary consent; b) confidentiality of information shared; c) anonymity of research participants; d) beneficence or no harm to participants; and e) reciprocity. As demonstrated the research, there are underlying tensions between a classical ethics top-down approach driven model, which views participants as passive, and the Participatory Action Research (PAR) model where participants are actively involved in the process. Key tensions noted include the challenges of obtaining informed consent, given the iterative and action-focused nature of PAR, and issues of confidentiality, validity, minimisation of harm and conflict of interest, owing to the active role of participants as researchers(Smith 2008). References, Halai A, 2006 “Ethics in qualitative research: issues and challenges”, EdQual Working Paper No. 4, The Aga Khan University Pakistan, pp. 1-12. Smith L, 2008 “Ethical principles in practice Evidence from participatory action research”, Weaving educational threads. Weaving educational practice, Vol, 9, pp.16-21. #S234UOW18 #Lab11 #Mon630

Nicholas Jones said : Guest Report 3 months ago

Research involving participants must respect certain ethical values to make certain that the participants are not mistreated. Fortunately, sociological research doesn’t permit the potential for instigating death, but it still can be the source of other categories of harm and consequently must obey ethical standards. An important ethical guideline in sociological research is the establishment of confidentiality and privacy regarding the participants and the sensitivity of the research question. A sociologist is prepared to safeguard their participants by encoding the data anonymously. Another ethical alarm that sociologist needs to confront is the matter of consent. Prior to the collection of data, a sociologist must obtain the consent of a participant. This conduct is generally coordinated by having the participant to sign an informed consent form that allows the researcher to advise the participants the objective of the research and the plausible risks that can occur from being a subject. The University of Minnesota states in ‘Ethical Research in Sociological Research’ (2018) that there is a problem regarding informed consent when it comes to studying specific populations. The problem that can be caused is that some participants can experience pressure to partake in the study. By acknowledging the significance of proprieties of the ethics of sociological research, a sociologist can collect individual and relatable data in a safe manner. By applying ethics to their research, a sociologist can be aware of any problems that may affect their participants that can affect their data.

Isabelle Liddy said : Guest Report 3 months ago

Ethics in social research frame ideological justification of weighing up individual rights of participants to potential advancement for the public and scientific discovery (Martin & Marker 2007; Patulny 2018; Zimbardo 1973). Researchers must be sensitive of conflicting interests that arise from power dynamics between themselves and participants, so to not exploit, physically endanger or psychologically harm (Habibis 2013; Patulny 2018). The key principles that shape ethics in social research include voluntary consent, confidentiality, anonymity, reduced risk of harm, the right for participants to exercise autonomy over participation and data, and that the experiment be useful to society (Habibis 2013; Patulny 2018; Zimbardo 1973). Key principles that oversee practices dealing with human and social studies emerged as a result of grievous and inhumane conduct of Nazi scientists who experimented on Jewish prisoners during the Holocaust (Patulny 2018). In recent years questions of ethics for incentives and informed consent have been debated. Studies have indicated that monetary compensation is not coercive; although it does encourage lower dropout rates, there is no significant pressure that could negatively impact the ethical standards of this procedure (Patulny 2018; Singer & Couper 2008). It can be contested that there are methodological requirements to conduct research without participants’ knowledge for reliability and bias, but consent and privacy must be of primary concern (Habibis 2013; Hunter 2014; Patulny 2018). Researchers providing documents for participants to outline aims and potential risks of the study is imperative to meet ethics guidelines of informed consent (Habibis 2013; Martin & Marker 2007).

Emma Wales said : Guest Report 3 months ago

What are the key principles and challenges of ethical research? Ethical research is a complicated issue, and takes much careful consideration to get right, it is important that research is ethical is it regards the wellbeing of other individuals and lifeforms. As individuals, humans (if not all animal species), have to right to life, this is upheld through both physical and psychological well being. In order to make sure research regards and upholds human and animal rights, after WWII during the Nuremberg war trials (1947) a set of research ethics codes was made which are still relevant and in use today. These codes outline key principles of ethical actions highlighting moral judgements to help us make decision what will best uphold the moral rights of those involved in this case in a research experiment. These principles are explained well in the lecture (Patulny, 2018) and can be summed up under (1) do no harm (minimise risk factors), (2) informed consent and voluntary participation and (3) ensurance of privacy, confidentiality and anonymity. Unfortunately these can lead to a conflict of interest between the researcher and participant, creating unwanted tensions between them (Habibis 2010) despite this conflict in general the participants interest win out, this is demonstrated in the Facebook ‘emotional manipulation study’ in 2012 a case where individuals did not give their full consent but where emotionally manipulated for the sake of research and without their own knowledge (see link 1), this was an issue because it showed no regard for the psychological wellbeing of the participants involved, violating their human rights of health and their personal rights to voluntary participation, withdrawal and privacy. Martin and Walker (2007) discuss the importance of informed consent as a key aspect to achieving a balance between personal and public good, and discusses further the procedures taken to gain consent and the levels of appropriateness involved in these, this is important to understand in light of the ‘facebook study’ and helps provide an insight into good and bad ways to do ethical research studies. Here (see link 2) is a helpful online resource for investigating ethics and its increasing relevance to social research. References: Habibis, D (2013) ‘Ethics and Social Research’, Chapter 4 in Walter, Maggie (ed.). (2013). Social Research Methods. 3rd Edition. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, p72-98 Patulny, 2018, Lecture 12 Research Ethics PowerPoint. Social Research Methods SOC234. University of Wollongong. 21/05/18. Martin, J. and Marker, DA. (2007) ‘Informed consent: Interpretation and practice in social surveys’, Social Science & Medicine 65: 2260-2271 Link 1: https://theconversation.com/consent-and-ethics-in-facebooks-emotional-manipulation-study-28596 Link 2: https://obssr.od.nih.gov/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Ethical-Challenges.pdf

Alye Wright said : Guest Report 3 months ago

Ethical research ensures that ethical principle, values and morals are overseen in research that involves humans (Habibis, 2013). The Nuremberg Code is a set of standards used to regulate human experimentation (Annas, 2018). It was established in Germany after human experiments were performed; these were medical trials that were inhumane and cruel (Moreno, 2017). The ten basic concepts are outlined in the lecture notes, and the key principles include: the nature of a volunteer (the right to withdraw. Requirements of the participant and ethics should be outlined in consent forms), avoid all unnecessary physical/mental injury (seeking ethical approvalí if the benefits of the study out-weigh the potential harm), no experiment should risk disability or death (similar to the previous: seeking ethical approval. If there's a chance of this happening then it won't be approved), and the subject should be able to end the experiment if they can't go on with it (links to the right to withdraw). To summarise the key points, people need to willingly volunteer and consent to the study; know the ethics and potential harm that could result from the study; and they have the right to withdraw at any point. This should be clearly outlined in the consent form that is provided prior to the research being conducted. The challenges with ethical research is that certain concepts can be subjective. For instance what qualifies as results that are good for society? How do ethnography's cover the nature of a volunteer? (as most of the time, they're unaware of their participation in a study). References: Annas, G 2018, 'Beyond Nazi war crimes experiments: The voluntary consent requirement of the Nuremberg Code at 70', American Journal of Public Health, vol. 108, no. 1, p. 42-46. Available from: 10.2105/AJPH.2017.304103. [21 May 2018]. Habibis, D 2013, 'Chapter 4: Ethics and Social Research' in Walter, Maggie (ed.) (2013) Social Research Methods , 3rd edition, Oxford University Press, p.241, accessed 21st May 2018 Moreno, J 2017, 'The Nuremberg Code 70 Years Later', Journal of the American Medical Association (Jama), vol. 319, no.1, p. 85-86, accessed 21st May 2018

Vishal Pandian said : Guest Report 3 months ago

Adherence to a pre-set ethical code is paramount when it comes to conducting valid and reliable research. A notion of right and wrong in many disciplines is often left up for interpretation or decided upon by the researcher themselves but when discussing sociology research, in particular ethnographic studies ‘The Nuremberg Code’ is a set of regulations in place for researchers to conduct valid research, that benefits the society and eliminates all negative externalities that arise. All parties involved in the research should be protected from physical, emotional & psychological harm or stress (Stuart, 2001). One of the most important factors for a researcher to consider is whether their participants have been recruited willingly & voluntarily as (Patulny, 2018) states that covert ethnography even when performed anonymously as seen in Humphreys 1970 ‘Tearoom Trade’ can sometimes be considered unethical as they participants were not given informed consent especially when participating in a study consisting of controversial and stigmatized themes. Challenges in performing ethical research arise especially when discussing such themes or when there is a high level of ambiguity involved in each parties’ contribution to the study. Additionally as the facilitator of the research one must ensure that if an incentive is provided that it is equivalent to the task being performed as the participant shouldn’t be coerced to cooperate and their decision should not be controlled or unduly influenced by threats or offers that cannot be resisted (Faden et. al, 1986). The primary goal of a study or research conducted is to extrapolate data and provide a solution to an overlying problem or social phenomena i.e. for the development of society so it is only right that the method itself is implemented with integrity & ethical principles in mind. #SOC234UOW18 #Mon630 #Lab11

Kyle Richardson said : Guest Report 3 months ago

Ethical research places humans as the most important part of the research and ensures that humans are governed by ethical principles (Habibis, 2013). In ethical research it is imperative to do no harm to both the participants and the researcher. However, sometimes the potential harm is compensated by the benefits of the research. As Bulmer (1982, p. 226) states, deceptive methods are necessary to do good social science. As Katy Halverson alludes to, sometimes you have to bend the rules to uncover social phenomena. For example, the Stanford Prison Experiment by Philip Zimbardo uncovered social facts about how people will act certain roles without training which is entirely unpredicted from a social and psychological background, however this experiment wasn't done in an ethical or legal environment. The experiment also contradicted point 4 in the Nuremberg Code (Emanuel et al., 2018) regarding 'avoiding all unnecessary physical/mental injury'. Furthermore, another pivotal point in ethical research is informed consent whereby participation is voluntary and not brought about by coercion, and also that the participant can leave the research process at any stage. Facebook's study in 2012 bent the rules of informed consent as participants consented to the research by agreeing to the terms and conditions when signing up, but this wasn't informed consent of the research. Again however, as the rules were bent, social facts were uncovered that wouldn't have been otherwise; comments in a person's newsfeed can influence their emotions and posts. Additionally, in ethical research it is essential to protect participants identities. #S234UOW18 #Lab11 #Mon630

Brittany Gratzer said : Guest Report 3 months ago

Ethics are a set of moral standards that govern behaviour in a particular setting (Habibis, 2013, 73). These ethics have many principles and challenges that need to be addressed. Some key principles that are from the Nuremburg code (Patulny, 2018, slide 4) are: voluntary consent, the results will be good for society, avoid all unnecessary physical/mental injury, no experiment should risk disability or death and the subject should be able to stop the experiment at any time. These principles provide a guideline for all research projects. They should always provide anonymity, confidentiality and safety Habibis, 2013, 83). These are put in place to provide the subjects and the researcher a safe environment to perform their studies and gives the participant peace of mind while being involved. Ethical research can have many everyday challenges that can cause the researcher to assess a different solution to continue their research within the ethical guidelines. Some challenges are the volunteers themselves, they can be influenced through who is asking them to do the research as well as some populations are more unlikely to participate in research. Another challenge is the payments to the research subjects, this can often be seen as coercion and inducement if the payment is too high. Habibis, D (2013) ‘Ethics and Social Research’, Chapter 4 in Walter, Maggie (ed.). (2013). Social Research Methods. 3rd Edition. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, p72-98 Patulny, 2018, Lecture 12 Research Ethics PowerPoint. Social Research Methods SOC234. University of Wollongong. 21/05/18.

Chloe Hancock said : Guest Report 3 months ago

In my opinion, ethical practice is imperative to consider prior to moving forward in the research process in order to know not only what you, as a researcher, are able to do, but to also understand what is the correct and most ethical way to go about it. Although “right” and “wrong” can seem subjective, codes, regulations, guidelines and legislation are developed by governing bodies to ensure a standard of ethical practice is maintained. The Nuremberg Code (Emanuel et al. 2018, pp. 136-139) exemplifies ethical guidelines, covering voluntary consent, results that are good for society and preceded by animal experimentation or prior knowledge, avoiding all unnecessary physical/mental injury with low risk of hurt/harm. The principles make for interesting consideration, and can circumstantially appear contradictory, for example: The ‘do no harm’ principle is super seated in the Nuremberg Code by the allowance of experimentation on animals, which brings up an array of ethical issues around animal rights and welfare, and is an exceedingly broad question… how do you, and are you really able to, guarantee no harm? In Lecture 11, Patulny (2018) raises ethics in relation to social media, and a 2012 Facebook Study that unknowingly filtered participants newsfeed with only negative/only positive postings. Despite social media users agreeing to terms and conditions prior to accessing sites, i.e. consent, without understanding what they are agreeing to, specifically, it is not informed consent, it is not ‘voluntary’ participation and creates massive potential for hurt/harm/negative impact to occur. There is no way to quantify the ramifications that a study like this may incite in individuals, their families, friends and broader networks or communities. The oxymoron that is privacy and confidentiality in the digital age raises ever increasing ethical issues in relation to social research.

Jasmine Andrews said : Guest Report 3 months ago

Essentially, ethics in research can be defined as ‘norms for conduct’ (Resnik 2015, p. 1) which encourage consideration of consent, confidentiality and anonymity (Wiles et al 2006; Habibis 2013). These principles protect participants and minimise risks involved in research (Patulny 2018). An essential principle is respect for the autonomy of the participant, in terms of ensuring that each participant can make free, informed decisions about whether to participate in the research (Hammersley & Traianou 2014). While there are obviously a number of benefits to ethical research practices, there are challenges and criticisms. As Katy H noted above in relation to the Facebook example (Hunter 2014), ethics may act as a barrier to research by preventing information being collected in a deceptive or immoral way, even if the results would arguably be socially valuable. Furthermore, other researchers have noted that a challenge of ethical practices is the potential bureaucratisation of research with formalities such as extensive consent forms. Some have criticised formal ethics processes as potentially leading to a situation where instead of researchers having the ability to assess ethical dilemmas as they arise in particular situations, they have prescribed, rigid codes of conduct (Coomber, 2002). This has been described as ‘overly formalistic and paternalistic’ (Wiles et al 2006, p. 286). Despite the challenges and critiques of ethical requirements in research, it is undeniable that they protect social and moral values like honesty, accountability, fairness, integrity, and personal autonomy. Justifiably, this makes ethical research practices worth the challenges it may pose. #S234UOW18 #Mon630 #Lab11 Coomber, R 2002 ‘Signing Your Life Away? Why Research Ethics Committees (REC) Shouldn’t Always Require Written Confirmation that Participants in Research have been Informed of the Aims of a Study and their Rights – the Case of Criminal Populations’, Sociological Research Online, vol. 7, no. 1, URL: http://www.socresonline.org.uk/7/1/coomber.html. Habibis, D (2013) ‘Ethics and Social Research’, Chapter 4 in Walter, Maggie (ed.). (2013). Social Research Methods. 3rd Edition. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, p72-98 Hammersley, M & Traianou, A 2014 ‘Foucault and Research Ethics: On the Autonomy of the Researcher’, Qualitative Inquiry, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 227–238. Hunter, D (2014) ‘Consent and ethics in Facebook’s manipulation study.’ The Conversation, viewed 1/7/14, http://theconversation.com/consent-and-ethics-infacebooks-emotional-manipulation-study-28596. Patulny, R 2018 ‘Research Ethics’, SOC234, University of Wollongong, viewed 20/05/18. Resnik DB 2015, 'What is Ethics in Research & Why is it Important?', National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, viewed 20/5/18, https://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources/bioethics/whatis/index.cfm. Wiles, R et al 2006 ‘Researching researchers: lessons for research ethics’, Qualitative Research, vol. 6, no. 3, pp 283–299.

Tracey McNamara said : Guest Report 3 months ago

When conducting research, it is important that researchers address ethical considerations. There are several different codes and guides to help researchers. One of these codes in the Nuremburg code, which set out the following as directives for human experimentation: 1 - Voluntary consent 2 – Results good for society 3 – Preceded by animal experimentation or prior knowledge 4 – Avoid all unnecessary physical/mental injury 5 – No experiment should risk disability or death 6 – Risk should never exceed humanitarian importance of research 7 – Proper protective preparations and facilities required 8 – Should only be conducted by suitably qualified persons 9 – The subject should be able to end the experiment if they can’t go on with it 10 – Researcher must be prepared to end experiment at any stage The Zimbardo experiment is one example where it could be argued that these codes weren’t adhered to. Zimbardo (2002) argued that his research provided valuable information that made the potential risk to the participants worth the research. The reputation of the experiment would appear to support this. It has been argued that the constraints of ethical research have an impact on the research and findings that can be made. Ethics in research is ultimately a cost-risk scenario. Zimbardo. P. (2002.) On the ethics of intervention in human psychological research: with special reference to the stamford prison experiment. Stamford University.

Abey Hatzantonis said : Guest Report 3 months ago

There are a multitude of factors that must be taken into account when doing research in order for it to be ethical. One of the main reasons ethical research is important, is to minimise any harm that may come to participants (Patulny 2018). It is also important that the participant’s participation is voluntary and that informed consent is given so that the participants are aware of exactly what the study is about and what they will be doing, as well as what the study will involve (Patulny 2018). Another important principle of ethical research is the confidentiality, anonymity and privacy of the participants, this is important as it protects their identities (Patulny 2018). It is also essential that the researcher is aware of any possible conflicts of interest that may arise during the study in order predict any other problems that may arise (Patulny 2018). Although these are some of the key principles of ethical research, they can also prove to be challenges based on the type of research being conducted. For example, when conducting research on mental health it would be essential that anything the participants are asked to complete does not worsen their mental state anymore, however as everyone is different it would be difficult to understand what may triggers for some people in comparison to others. It is also important that the research has plans put into place for any challenges that may arise. It is essential that researchers put the mental and physical health and overall wellbeing of participants in their study first in order for it to be ethical. Patulny, R 2018, ‘Lecture 12: Research Ethics’, PowerPoint slides, SOC234, University of Wollongong, 19 May 2018. #SOC234UOW18 #MON630

Pepper-lily Baumgaertner said : Guest Report 3 months ago

Publicised in 1947, the Nuremberg Code compromises of the basic ethical guidelines that all researchers should follow when conducting any form of human research (Emanuel et al. 2018, pp. 136-139). The key principles of the ethical code consist (but are not limited to) of: Voluntary consent, or informed consent to participate in research is absolutely necessary. It is key to ethical research that the participants are aware of what he or she is signing up for. It is also imperative that they are aware of the duration of the study, complications (whether a clinical study or research which may consist of sensitive content) of the study. It is also necessary to inform volunteers that they have the right as a willing participant to withdraw from the study at any time they see necessary and without repercussions (Bulmer 1982, pp.217-251). A key challenge in modern day research is conducting ethical studies online. Concerns stem from whether online research can ensure that participants contribution is confidential, or whether data gathered has come from willing volunteers and not simply by agreeing to certain cites (for example when signing up to social media sites) lengthy terms and conditions (Buchanan et al. 2009, pp. 37-41). Furthermore, conducting research that is informed by previous studies, protects research participants from any harm whether that be physically or mental; and is a study which benefits society, is compulsory in todays age. #S234UOW18 #Lab11 #Mon630 References: Buchanan, E, Hvizdak, E 2009, Online survey tools: ethical and methodological concerns of human research ethics committees, Online survey tools, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, SAGE, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 37-41. Bulmer, M, 1982, ‘The merits and demerits of covert participant observation’, in Bulmer, M (ed.), Social Research ethics: An examination of the merits of covert Participant Observation, Macmillan, London, pp. 217-251. Emanuel, E, Grady, C, Crouch, R, Lie, R, Miller, F, Wendler, D 2008, The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics, Oxford University Press, pp. 136-139.

Monique Athanasopoulos said : Guest Report 3 months ago

When conducting social research, it is important that the researcher abides by the key principles of ethical research and responds to challenges appropriately. A researcher who abides by the principles of ethical research will protect the participant and their privacy, obtain informed consent and minimise risk (Patulny 2018). Firstly, it is important that the researcher protects the participants that they are researching, this is outlined in the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans (NHMRC 2007, cited in Habibis 2013, p.77). This statement outlines the way in which the privacy and safety of participants should be managed. Personal information should only be gathered if it is absolutely necessary and all personal information should be stored separately but not on a hard drive and once the information is no longer required, it should be disposed of (Habibis 2013, p. 83). The other issue is that the safety of participants should never be threatened. One such example of when safety was not a priority of the researcher was Milgram and his study of authority which left many participants psychologically harmed (Habibis 2013, p. 83). It is also highly important that the researcher obtains informed consent from its participants. This is when the researcher provides a written statement that the participant is to sign if they agree. The statement says that the participants have been fully informed about the study and that they know their participation is voluntary, meaning they can withdraw at any time (Habibis 2013, p. 80). Finally, an ethical researcher minimises risk. They do this by taking special sensitivity when researching vulnerable groups like children, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and the elderly (Habibis 2013, p. 85). Reference List Habibis, D 2013 in M Walter (ed.), Social Research Methods, 3rd edn, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, pp. 72-98. Patulny, R 2018, ‘Lecture 12: Research Ethics’, PowerPoint slides, SOC234, University of Wollongong, 19 May 2018. #s234uow18 #Mon630

Monique Athanasopoulos said : Guest Report 3 months ago

When conducting social research, it is important that the researcher abides by the key principles of ethical research and responds to challenges appropriately. A researcher who abides by the principles of ethical research will protect the participant and their privacy, obtain informed consent and minimise risk (Patulny 2018). Firstly, it is important that the researcher protects the participants that they are researching, this is outlined in the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans (NHMRC 2007, cited in Habibis 2013, p.77). This statement outlines the way in which the privacy and safety of participants should be managed. Personal information should only be gathered if it is absolutely necessary and all personal information should be stored separately but not on a hard drive and once the information is no longer required, it should be disposed of (Habibis 2013, p. 83). The other issue is that the safety of participants should never be threatened. One such example of when safety was not a priority of the researcher was Milgram and his study of authority which left many participants psychologically harmed (Habibis 2013, p. 83). It is also highly important that the researcher obtains informed consent from its participants. This is when the researcher provides a written statement that the participant is to sign if they agree. The statement says that the participants have been fully informed about the study and that they know their participation is voluntary, meaning they can withdraw at any time (Habibis 2013, p. 80). Finally, an ethical researcher minimises risk. They do this by taking special sensitivity when researching vulnerable groups like children, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and the elderly (Habibis 2013, p. 85). Reference List Habibis, D 2013 in M Walter (ed.), Social Research Methods, 3rd edn, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, pp. 72-98. Patulny, R 2018, ‘Lecture 12: Research Ethics’, PowerPoint slides, SOC234, University of Wollongong, 19 May 2018. #S234UOW18 #Mon630

Katy Halverson said : Guest Report 3 months ago

Ethical research, as defined in the textbook, “ensures that ethical principles and values always govern research involving humans,” (Habibis, 2013, pp 73). In the lecture we learned that this means obtaining informed consent, minimizing risk, and protecting the safety and privacy of participants (Patulny, 2018). The guidelines for ethical research include seeking consent through a consent form which informs the participant of their right to refuse to participate at any time and any inherent risks to participating in the research (Habibis, 2013). Another key principle is protecting their personal information by maintaining confidentiality (Habibis, 2013). Lastly, protecting the safety of particularly vulnerable groups such as children, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, or the disabled (Habibis, 2013). However, sometimes the potential harm is outweighed by the benefits of the research. According to Bulmer, “deceptive methods are necessary to do good social science,” (Bulmer, 1982, pp 226). In other words, sometimes the most fascinating results are obtained through risky means. In the case of the Facebook study we discussed in class, manipulating the emotions of uninformed users was highly criticized for being unethical (Hunter, 2014). However the study did yield some interesting results, which arguably could not have been acquired without use of deception. The challenge of ethical research is observing the fine line between immoral practice and pushing the boundaries to new discoveries. #S234UOW18 #Mon630 #Lab11 References: Bulmer, M, 1982, “The Merits and Demerits of Covert Participant Observation,” Social Research Ethics: An Examination of the Merits of Covert Participant Observation, London, pp 217-251. Habibis, D 2013, “Ethics in Social Research,” Chapter 4 in Walter, Maggie ed. 2013 Social Research Methods, 3rd ed. South Melbourne: Oxford Univeristy Press, pp 72-98. Hunter, D (2014) ‘Consent and ethics in Facebook’s manipulation study.’ The Conversation, 1/7/14, viewed 15/5/2018. http://theconversation.com/consent-and-ethics-infacebooks-emotional-manipulation-study-28596 Patulny, R (2018) “Research Ethics,” SOC234, University of Wollongong. Viewed 14/05/2018.

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