SOC234 2018 Lab11 – Thu 8.30am

Dear SOC234 Lab,

Please respond to the following question with a reply-post of no more than 250 words:

‘What are the key principles and challenges of ethical research?”

Remember that you will need to post your reply before Lab 11, and don’t forget to look at both the instructions for Tweeting and Blogging and the Lab and Lecture Guide, both up on Moodle.

Thanks and good luck, Roger.

#S234UOW18  #Lab11  #Thu830

Posted in SOC234 - Social Research methods, UOW.

27 Comments on SOC234 2018 Lab11 – Thu 8.30am

Tiana Foweraker said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Ethics, is the establishment of moral principles that governs an individual’s behaviour in a group or setting (Habibis, 2013, p. 73). Ethical research is important as it analyses ethical issues within research that involves people. The challenges that come with ethical research, is that often the populations being studied are vulnerable, therefore many areas of conflict could present itself. To avoid conflict, there is certain criteria that must be met when conducting ethical research. The National Statement on Ethical conduct in Human Research (2007), states some key principles and values that should be met during ethical research. These principles involve: Research merit and integrity, Justice, Beneficence, and Respect. Although there are other principles outlined in the national statement, these values are key towards all ethical research and must be practiced where possible. Some risks that may arrive when these key principles are not practiced efficiently, involve – harm, discomfort, and inconvenience. During ethical research it is imperative that researchers must account for the challenges that may be faced, and ask whether the benefits of the research can justify the risks (National statement, 2007). Habibis states that some researchers find these ethical guidelines as restrictive, challenging them and preventing them from producing successful research. However the rarity of reported unethical procedures and abuse suggests that researchers are dedicated to ensuring these key principles are met to maintain the well-being of participants within their research. Habibis, D 2013, ‘Chapter 4: Ethics and Social Research’, in M Walter’s (ed.), Social Research Methods, 3rd ed, Oxford University Press, South Melbourne. National Health and Medical Research Council 2007, National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research, National Health and Medical Research Council, viewed 23 May 2018. #S234UOW18 #Lab11 #Thu830

Andrew Minutillo said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Social research at all levels must take into consideration a range of ethical issues and circumstances that can arise during the research process. Unethical research not only produces false or biased results but reduces the credibility and validity of the research itself. The first key principle of ethical research in safety and the absence of harm, it is imperative that physical measures are always taken to ensure the physical safety of both the researcher and the participant. In addition, the consent and voluntary position from the participant ensures the participant is comfortable and the data produced is valid. Extending on this, the privacy, confidentiality and anonymity on behalf od the participant is imperative to be ensured and upheld as it not only functions to make the participant feel more comfortable but allows for all responses to be given more honestly and confidently and thus yielding greater data for the research. Amongst all these pillars of ethical research, it is important to consistently be aware of conflict of interest. This relays to an indifference between the interests, needs and wants of the researcher and the participant, such as use for data, anonymity and intention of research. It is within a conflict of interest that there can be unequal power distributions or un-just usage of a respondent’s answers. Therefore, it is imperative that communication about interests and needs between the researcher and respondent be constant and understood fully. (ref) Habibis, D (2013) ‘Ethics and Social Research’, Chapter 4 in Walter, Maggie (ed.). (2013). Social Research Methods. 3rd Edition. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, p72-98

Lara Mythillos said : Guest Report 5 months ago

When research is undertaken there are ethic committees and principles in places that must be followed to ensure the researcher and participants are safe and the reliability of data. Ethical research “ensures that ethical principles and values always govern research involving humans” (Habibis 2013, p.73). To ensure ethical research is completed, principals must be adhered to, research merit, integrity, beneficence and respect (Walter 2013). Challenges towards ethics will not arise if the correct principles are applied. It is important that the researcher checks the integrity of there research and explains the study to participants ensuring consent, no harm, anonymity, confidentiality, privacy, conflicts of interest are followed throughout the entire study to reduce any ethical challenges arising (Walter 2013). The Stanford Prison Experiment revealed the importance of ethics as the safety of humans out ways research findings (Zimbardo, 1971). The study did not consult an ethics committee as the research was breaching research ethics and human rights as both physical and psychological harm was encountered. The study did not provide a consent form to ensure the health and wellbeing of individuals is not impacted. A consent form (preamble) provides individuals with the relevant information of the research aim, investigation, the option to withdrawal and information for accessing services. Researchers must continuously monitor their participants to ensure their requests are followed as they are assisting in research findings. If participant are treated ethically and all principles are followed dependable data will be provided with pleased participants. #S234UOW18 #Lab11 #Thu830 1. Habibis, D 2013, ‘Ethics and Social Research’, in M Walter (ed.), Social Research Methods, 3rd Edition, Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, pp. 73 – 93. 2. 2. Walter, Maggie (ed.). 2013. Social Research Methods. 3rd Edition. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press. 3. Zimbardo, P 1973, ‘On the ethics of intervention in human psychological research: With special reference to the Stanford prison experiment’, Cognition, vol. 2, no. 2, pp.243-256.

Izaak Culican said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Basic ethical guidelines apply to all forms of experimental research and are used to reduce the harm to the participants and the researcher. The Nuremburg code is often used to govern ethical research as it outlines the core components that protect all parties involved (Patulny 2018). These include assurances such as voluntary consent, should not risk disability or death, the risk should never exceed humanitarian importance of research and the researcher must be prepared to end the experiment at any stage. Detailed information regarding what the study plans to achieve as well as the methods used to gather data are needed to be presented to an ethics board to allow an experiment to proceed. In some experiments risk is an integral factor that cannot be avoided, in these cases identification of groups that may be more vulnerable to such risk imperative. These groups may include children, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, people who have been involved in criminal activity and people who are dependent upon medical care. Confidentiality is an important part of ethical research as it maintains that information concerning the respondent is to remain undisclosed, thereby protecting the protecting the participant. Informed consent assures that members of the study are aware of exactly what is to take place in simple studies that do not integrate deception as well as making a conscious decision to participate. Finally, ethical research should be non-coercive as persuasion may result in the alteration of data. #S234UOW18 #Lab11 #Thu830

Brodie Henderson said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Guillemin (2004, p. 264) argues that it is imperative for a researcher to be ethical in their research, and to treat their participant in a humane and non-exploitive manner. It just so happens that there are many considerations that need to be accounted for when doing ethical research. Smith believes that there are five key ethical principles when researching; give credit for roles and arguments, consciousness of the power in the relationship, consent, confidentiality and the ethical obligations of those individuals you’re studying (2003, pp. 1-7). In relation to the argument for guns in schools, this would include, the need for empathy and understanding of possible victims needs, as well as their rights to privacy. Also, if they are under-age, it may be difficult to be able to express their opinions publicly and in a literary sense. Stuart (2001, p. 35) believes that young people are those most likely to be exploited in this sense. The greatest factor in the publishing of youth’s opinions is therefore parental consent, especially in relation to trauma related to firearm violence within schools. The Australian National Health and Medical Research Council states that the relationships between those interviewees and those being interviewed, need to be held to the values of respect, research merit, integrity and justice. Therefore, while there may be many common challenges in relation to ethical research, in upholding these positive values, a researcher will understand the principles and be able to apply them to their research. Guillemin, M and Gillam, L. 2004, ‘Ethics, reflexivity, and “ethically important moments” in research’, Qualitative inquiry, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 261-280. Smith, D. 2003, Five principles for research ethics’, Monitor on psychology, vol. 34, no.1, p.56. Stuart, G. 2001, ‘Are you old enough?: Research ethics and young people’, Youth Studies Australia, vol. 20, no. 4, p. 34. The Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, Values and Principles of Ethical Conduct, https://www.nhmrc.gov.au/book/section-1-values-and-principles-ethical-conduct (accessed 10 May 2018)

Tamika said : Guest Report 5 months ago

When conducting research, there must be ethics put in place to ensure the safety, and privacy of those involved in the research tasks. Walter (2013) defines ethics as a set of, “moral standards that govern behaviour in a particular setting or for a particular group”, and therefore ethical research ensures that the, “ethical principles and values always govern research involving humans”. The National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans (NHMRC 2007), outline the four main aspects that govern ethics in research involving humans, which are; respect for human beings, justice, beneficence and, research merit and integrity. These four values help shape the trust, mutual responsibility, and ethical equality of the relationship between the researcher and research participants (NHMRC 2007). Participation in research just be voluntarily, and consent must be given to ensure that the participant is fully aware of the relevant risks and benefits during the research (Smith 2003). Smith (2003), analyses some of the key principles of ethical research stating that researchers should, “follow informed-consent rules” and, “Respect confidentiality and privacy”. An example of this is, informing the participant that he/she can withdraw from the research once it has started, discussing how the participant’s data and information will be used or shared through photos, audio, or recordings, and importantly securing their consent (Smith 2003). The participant and the researcher are two of the stake holders whom, in a number of areas, ethical issues are important and must include; personal safety, truthful reporting, and acknowledgement of sources (Walter 2003). References: Smith, D 2003, ‘Five principles for research ethics’, American Psychological Association, vol. 34, no. 1, National Health and Medical Research Council 2007, National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans, National Health and Medical Research Council, viewed 24 May 2018, http://uow.libguides.com/refcite/uowharvard-government, Walter, M 2013, Social research Methods: 3rd Edition, South Melbourne, Oxford University Press

Kathleen Healy said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Ethics is defined as a set of moral standards that direct behaviour in a particular setting or for a specific group scenario. (Habibis 2013, p. 73) The National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans listed four key principles researchers are expected to follow to in order to maintain ethicality; (Habibis 2013) merit, integrity, justice, beneficence and respect for human beings. (2013) According to Graeme Stuart (2001 pp. 34-35), it is undisputed that the risk of “negative use of research should be minimised, and people who are involved with the research should be protected from any physical, emotion or psychological harm or stress from the study. It is then relevant to expect research participants to be treated fairly, considerately and respectfully. (Stuart, G 2001 p. 35) As researchers, we are reminded to inform the participant of informed consent, which requires awareness of how the information garnered will be used, together with their option to refuse to participate with no consequence. (Patulny, R 2018) However, there are many challenges faced when undergoing ethical research. When these key principles are not introduced, the morality of the study is questioned. The Stanford Prison experiment is an example of this. (Zimbardo, P G 1971) A breach of ethics was of concern when the experiment was cancelled due to the distress of many participants of the experiment. Therefore, there are many challenges faced when conducting ethical research. Other risks include the use of volunteers. Factors including participants manipulating research, or arguably using incentives are a form of coercion. (Habibis 2013 p. 79) References: Walter, Maggie (ed.). 2013. Social Research Methods. 3rd Edition. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press. Stuart, G, 2001, ‘Research Ethics and Young People’, Youth Studies Australia, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 34-39. Patulny, R 2018, ‘Introduction – Social research and Research Questions’, lecture, SOC234, University of Wollongong, delivered 26 August. Zimbardo, P G 1971, ‘On the Ethics of Intervention in Human Psychological Research: With special reference to the Stanford Prison Experiment,’ Cognition, pp. 243-256 #S234UOW18 #Lab11 #Thu830

Rebekah Shiba said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Ethic refers to an individual moral standards that affect an individuals behaviour, ethical research refers to making sure that ethical procedures and principles govern experiments or research in order to promote participants wellbeing and increase the reliability of the final results and findings. The key factors in ethical research include research merit, integrity, justice, beneficence and respect for human beings. The definition of repeat of human beings includes confidentiality, having the individuals consent, anonymity and protecting the individuals from harm(Walter 2013) these protocols allow to help create an experiment that will reduce participants feelings of nervousness and make the interview more comfortable through identifying the safe ways the research is being conducted. A potential obstacle of ethical research may include the skill of the researcher and how they engage with the individuals. A researcher should have prior knowledge regarding with ethical considerations, research methods and data analysis to ensure that the results are reliable and to avoid producing inaccurate results that will be invalid. Another challenge with ethical research is when investigating sensitive issues, research have a responsibility to the participant to promote and support there wellbeing by taking the necessary precautions which may be timing consuming. Another challenges involves the concept of beneficence, to ensure that the experiments benefits out weight the risk of the participants. Which can be a difficult process as each participant have different backgrounds and different experiences and understanding of concepts and issues. This then cause the participant to interpret the question how they see fits them therefore creating diverse answers and makes analysis and preparation for reaction to sensitive topics a struggle for the researcher. (Walter 2013) #S234UOW18 #Lab11 #Thu830 Reference 1. Walter, Maggie (ed.). 2013. Social Research Methods. 3rd Edition. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Curtis Atkins said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Ethics function as the fundamental and moral backbone to social research. Ethical conduct governs contemporary social research, ultimately aiming to minimise the risks involved in collecting and collating data. The key principles of ethical research according to the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans (2007) include research merit and integrity, justice, beneficence and respect (Habibis 2013, pp.77-78). Research merit constitutes the notion of the research being potentially advantageous to society, all the while being carried out honestly (Habibis 2013, p.78). Justice involves the consideration of distributive and procedural justice, which sees equal distribution of the benefits of the study and equal treatment in the recruitment and reviewing stages (Habibis 2013, p.78). Beneficence sees the minimisation of harm in both a physical and social format, where respect for humans involves sensitivity toward beliefs, customs and culture of specific groups, alongside use of informed consent, anonymity and confidentiality (Habibis 2013, p.78). Developing from these principles, challenges in ethical research may arise, examples of which include coercion, covert research and deception (Habibis 2013, pp.90-91). Coercion must be considered, as results may be biased or invalid if too great an incentive is offered for participating, whereas participation may be severely limited if the researcher offers nothing for the inconvenience of the study (Habibis 2013, p.91). Covert research acts an example of an ethical research challenge, as it often adapts an observational methodology, often not informing the population of their inclusion in the study (Habibis 2013, p.91). As such, those who may wish not to participate may be left without a choice, without their knowledge and agreement. Deception is yet another example of an ethical challenge, as research which intentionally (or accidentally) deceives participants may result in long-lasting psychological trauma (Habibis 2013, p.91). Considering these key principles and thus avoiding the inherent challenges of research will result in a successful study. References Habibis, D 2013, ‘Chapter 4: Ethics and Social Research’, in M Walter’s (ed.), Social Research Methods, 3rd ed, Oxford University Press, South Melbourne. National Health and Medical Research Council 2007, National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research, National Health and Medical Research Council, viewed 16 May 2018,

Elise Walker said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Habibis, 2013, defines Ethical Research as “ensuring that ethical principles and values always govern research involving humans” (Habibis, 2013). The term Ethics, is classified as the development of moral standards that administers behaviour throughout a specific environment or social crowd (Habibis, 2013). When research is conducted, several things must be taken into consideration. Nuremberg code, is a key principle of research, that is used to guide a research appropriately (Patulny, 2018). There are approximately five ethical issues regarding the application of research. These are: Informed consent, beneficence (do not harm), respect for anonymity/confidentiality, respect for privacy, and conflicts of interest (Patulny, 2018). Informed consent – Participants should know all details of a research proposal before agreeing to or declining participation, their decision should be made purely on their own without influence (Patulny, 2018). Do not harm – beneficence is implemented to emotionally, physically and psychologically protect the participants of the research (Patulny, 2018). Anonymity/privacy/confidentiality – is very important to implement in research, the information and means of identification of participants must be protected (Patulny, 2018). Conflicts of interest – ensuring no boundaries are crossed within the research, avoid any means of tension between those involved (Patulny, 2018). Following set ethical guidelines, performing the research in an appropriate and respectful manner will result in a successful study, with successful results. #S234UOW18 #Lab11 #Thu830 Referencing: Habibis, D (2013) ‘Ethics and Social Research’, Chapter 4 in Walter, Maggie (ed.). (2013). Social Research Methods. 3rd Edition. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, p72-98. Patulny, R 2018, ‘Social Research Methods – Research Ethics’, Lecture 12, SOC234, University of Wollongong, delivered 14 May, viewed 15/05/2018.

Alisha Caine said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Research ethics is governed by the moral implications of humans as subjects of study, with a core purpose to foresee cause for harm thereby shaping research: “the focus shifts from the needs of the project to those of the key stakeholders: the participants” (Habibis 2013, p.73). Social query produces distributions of power requiring address, adhering to ethics in research validifies findings as contentions arise as to whether the value of research outweighs the harm. Tending to such concerns is The Nuremberg Code: Directives for Human Experimentation https://history.nih.gov/research/downloads/nuremberg.pdf such guidelines provide prior cautionaries to the ethical practice of research. Likewise, The National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans http://www.architecture.uq.edu.au/filething/get/1717/nationalstatement.pdf identifies four values which are as per Habibis (2013, p.77): research merit and integrity, justice, beneficence and respect. Mutual disclosure and transparency of intended research and implications of voluntary participation are ethical priorities for the researcher to apply with attention to suitability of information for each partaking individual. At risk participants must be identified and consent acquired in relation to the specific requirements of the individual. Informed consent is essential as Hunter (2014) explores when discussing ethical issues relating to participants in research both reading and understanding terms of consent. Further on, anonymity protects participant identification and confidentiality practices protect information provided by ensuring it is not a source of participant identity (Habibis 2013, p.82). Therefore, the management and storage of data is an ethical consideration of research. Conflicts of interest between researcher and participant require compromise and moral checkpoints to safeguard research is not only governed by the agenda of the researcher and this is the role of ethics.

Laura Ducie said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Ethics is the creation of a set of moral standards that direct behaviour in a particular setting or for a particular group scenario (Habibis 2013, p. 73). Ethical research is an important aspect of a research project being conducted, as it’s an important foundation to a successful research study. The key principles in ethical research include: research merit, integrity, justice, beneficence and respect for human beings. (Walter 2013). By establishing these principles, it demonstrates a trustworthy researcher, therefore showing to the participant that this research is being conducted in a respectable manor. This trust between researcher and participant is very important to establish, especially when discussing high risk topics. High risk topics refers to subjects which create discomfort and unease, this creates a major ethical challenge regarding participants. If a study uses research volunteers and has a high-risk topic, the volunteers interested in the research may manipulate the research by only having data from one or two types of people. This creates a potential bias in the research, leaving the research very limited. Another challenge of ethical research is payments to the research participants who are giving up their time may need expenses for travel, child care or if they have taken time off work. This can be recognised as a coercion. (Habibis 2013). Overall, through the combination of the key principles and recognising the challengers early on, these challengers can be avoided, leading to a successful research study. #S234UOW18 #Lab11 #Thu830 Reference: Habibis, D (2013) ‘Ethics and Social Research’, Chapter 4 in Walter, Maggie (ed.). (2013). Social Research Methods. 3rd Edition. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, p72-98. Walter, Maggie (ed.). 2013. Social Research Methods. 3rd Edition. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press

Nadia Ciccolella said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Ethics can be defined as the establishment of a set of moral standards that govern behaviour in a particular setting or for a particular group (Habibis 2013, p. 73). Ethical research is a very important quality a researcher must adopt, as it is the foundation to a successful research project. Some aspects of ethical research may be deemed as challenging, however protecting participants is a key principal in regards to ethical research. Ensuring that the participant has voluntarily agreed to participate in the research is fundamental and considered a key principal of ethical research; the participant should be informed and given an adequate understanding on the research and the implications that may accompany it. In addition to this participants must be informed of the purpose, methods, demands, risks and potential benefits of the research (Habibis 2013, p. 79). The three values of ethical research include, justice, beneficence and research merit and integrity, embedded in these values are the principals to ethical research. Anonymity is the protection of the participant’s identification in research and guarantees that their privacy is respected and that their responses cannot be used to identify them. Confidentiality is another key principal, which corresponds to anonymity as it focuses on maintaining privacy for the participants, however confidentiality focuses on ensuring that the information provided by participants cannot be directly linked to them. Unfortunately there are ways for these principals to be breached which then makes certain aspects to research challenging, however if researchers are clear and organised these challenges can be avoided. References Habibis, D (2013) ‘Ethics and Social Research’, Chapter 4 in Walter, Maggie (ed.). (2013). Social Research Methods. 3rd Edition. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, p72-98. #Lab11 #Thu830 #S234UOW18

Nadia Ciccolella said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Ethics can be defined as the establishment of a set of moral standards that govern behaviour in a particular setting or for a particular group (Habibis 2013, p. 73). Ethical research is a very important quality a researcher must adopt, as it is the foundation to a successful research project. Some aspects of ethical research may be deemed as challenging, however protecting participants is a key principal in regards to ethical research. Ensuring that the participant has voluntarily agreed to participate in the research is fundamental and considered a key principal of ethical research; the participant should be informed and given an adequate understanding on the research and the implications that may accompany it. In addition to this participants must be informed of the purpose, methods, demands, risks and potential benefits of the research (Habibis 2013, p. 79). The three values of ethical research include, justice, beneficence and research merit and integrity, embedded in these values are the principals to ethical research. Anonymity is the protection of the participant’s identification in research and guarantees that their privacy is respected and that their responses cannot be used to identify them. Confidentiality is another key principal, which corresponds to anonymity as it focuses on maintaining privacy for the participants, however confidentiality focuses on ensuring that the information provided by participants cannot be directly linked to them. Unfortunately there are ways for these principals to be breached which then makes certain aspects to research challenging, however if researchers are clear and organised these challenges can be avoided. Reference: Habibis, D (2013) ‘Ethics and Social Research’, Chapter 4 in Walter, Maggie (ed.). (2013). Social Research Methods. 3rd Edition. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, p72-98.

Niamh Carroll said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Ethics is defined as moral principles that govern a person's behaviour or the conducting of an activity (Oxford Dictionary, 2015). Within research, ethics are important as they make sure that there is consideration on how the research takes place in reference to the effects it will have on those involved. Within research, there are a number of key principles put into place to ensure that the research is ethical. Nuremberg code is a a list of research ethic principles for the experimentation on humans that ensures the safety of those involved in research and experimentation. Examples of these are voluntary consent, confidentiality, avoiding unnecessary physical and/or mental injury, researchers preparation to end the experiment/research at any stage etc. In research, ethical challenges may arise. In 2012, a scandal took place on facebook, where nearly 700 000 were used without proper consent as a part of research by facebook. This research disregarded the key principles that are necessary for research to be considered ethical, as it did not have consent granted by those using the social media platform. Without consent, it also did not give participants the opportunity to have toe research end due to their discomfort/desire as they were not aware that it was taking place. An example of an ethical challenge that may occur is the use of research volunteers. This is because it research volunteers may be able to manipulate the research, whether this be with financial benefits for those participating in research as payment for research as it is possible for this to be seen as a form of pressurisation (Habibis, 2013). #S234UOW18 #Lab11 #Thu830

Emily Williams said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Ethics are used as moral guidelines in social research, they are what construct the research and provides reliable answers. They act in a way the looks out for the participants and ensure their safety and wellbeing are first priority. The key principles in ethical research include: research merit, integrity, justice, beneficence and respect for human beings. According to Maggie Walter in her textbook, Social Research Methods, “respect for human beings encompasses the concepts of confidentiality, informed consent, anonymity and protection from harm,” (Walter 2013). This, simply put, are examples of the ways a researcher can consider the participant and avoid the hindering of answers or potential bias that may void a report or topic. These examples ultimately lead to the researcher showing the participant that they can be trusted and dependable in evaluating their findings respectfully. A very important ethical concern also, can be the fact that a topic may be deemed, “high risk” (Walter 2013) meaning the topic can cause discomfort when answering, this is why trust becomes very important between a researcher and participant. And finally one of the most if not the most crucial ethical concern, is the acknowledgement of sources and clearly quoting, and referring to original sources in their correct manor to avoid plagiarism. These key principles and examples are what make a project or topic ethical and by ignoring these this is where challenges arise. Overall, ethical research is what decides the safety, the reliability and the accuracy of a participant’s answer, identically, this is what decides the outcome of a research topic level of quality. #S234UOW18 #Lab11 #Thu830 References: Walter, Maggie (ed.). 2013. Social Research Methods. 3rd Edition. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press

Jack Smith said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Ethical research carries with it several considerations that need to be taken into account when conducting research. When it comes to the needs of the researcher vs needs of the researched it can often become an issue of generating fast and large quantities of good data whilst also needing to respect the participants and protect them from being exploited, particularly if there is a power dynamic that benefits the researcher over the participant (Walters, p.74). This explains why it is important to make sure that any incentives offered are not so large that they could be a bribe. It is also essential that a process of informed consent is employed. The scandal surrounding the 2012 Facebook study that targeted people’s comments shows the importance of this, for while it was technically legal to perform people cannot be considered fully aware of the potential risks (or even existence) of the experiment (David Hunter, The Conversation). For most research it is essential that participants are told of the potential risks and that they sign a form indicating that they have been informed of said risks and give their consent to have their data used. When dealing with minority or marginalised groups further considerations need to be applied. A good example of this is the work of Stuart and his studies into youth where he argues that in his line of research obtaining parental consent would prove detrimental to the research participants (Stuart, p. 34). 1. Habibis, D (2013) ‘Ethics and Social Research’, Chapter 4 in Walter, Maggie (ed.). (2013). Social Research Methods. 3rd Edition. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, p72-98 2. Stuart, G (2001) ‘Research ethics and young people’, Youth Studies Australia, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 34-39. 3. Hunter, D (2014) Consent and Ethics in Facebooks Emotional Manipulation Study [online] http://theconversation.com/consent-and-ethics-infacebooks-emotional-manipulation-study-28596. accessed: 20/5/18

Lexe Evans said : Guest Report 5 months ago

The key principles of ethical research are used to ensure that values always control research involving humans (Walter 2013). The Nuremberg code, is used as a key principle that guides researchers through the process of researching (Patulny 2018). Do no harm, is used to minimise risks, by protecting participants from physical, emotional and psychological harm (Stuart 2001). As Patulny (2018) wrote, informed consent and voluntary participation ensure that participants are informed about what the research will entail, and that they volunteer themselves without being influenced. Privacy, confidentially and anonymity are used to keep the participant’s information private and unidentifiable. Confidentiality ensures that the information that respondents have provided remains private, the researchers know, but they do not tell. Anonymity, is keeping participants protected from identification, meaning that nobody knows who they are, including the researcher. The challenges of ethical research, include volunteers, where researchers can encourage or manipulate participants to participate without them knowing. As Water (2013) stated this can be seen through the relationship and setting of asking participants to participate. Another challenge of ethical research is payments to research subject, participants who are giving up their time may need expenses for travel, child care or if they have taken time of work, however this becomes a problem when researchers use payments as coercion or as a method to convince participants to participate. Another challenge of ethical research is deception, where researchers include participants who did not agree and were not aware. #S234UOW18 #Lab11 #Thu830 References: 1. Patulny, R 2018, ‘Research Ethics’, lecture, SOC234, University of Wollongong, delivered 14 May 2018. 2. Stuart, G 2001, ‘Research ethics and young people’, Youth Studies Australia, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 34-39. 3. Walter, M (ed.) 2013, Social Research Methods, Oxford University Press, Melbourne.

Harvey Davies said : Guest Report 5 months ago

There are several key principles that should be morally followed before conducting research on human participants to help avoid raising any complex ethical issues. These principles include: minimising the risk of harm; obtaining informed consent; protecting anonymity and confidentiality; avoiding deceptive practices and providing the right to withdraw (Laerd Dissertation, 2012). During research, participants have a right to remain comfortable and unharmed. There are varying types of harm that participants can be subjected to, including physical harm, privacy and social disadvantage. Ethical challenges are routinely faced by researchers; therefore, the researcher must assess what is the appropriate course of action to achieve research goals without compromising ethical values (Walter, 2013). There are challenges that need to be controlled in order for research not to breach ethical standards – one example of this is using research volunteers, as volunteers can manipulate the research and financial incentives for research participants, as this can be seen as coercion (Habibis, 2013). Different ethical boundaries are set throughout different sets of data, challenging researchers in numerous ways. For example, qualitative methods can cause distress for participants as they aim to discover more in-depth answers through differing sets of questions. To overcome this chance of distress, researchers must use questions that each participant would be able to comfortably answer without it feeling personal. Essentially, the most crucial factor of the research method is that the method must suit the research topic and question (Walter, 2013). References: 1. Habibis, D 2013, ‘Ethics and Social Research’, in M Walter (ed.), Social Research Methods, 3rd Edition, Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, pp. 73 – 93. 2. Walter, Maggie (ed.). 2013. Social Research Methods. 3rd Edition. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press. #S234UOW18 #Lab11 #Thu830

Oliver King said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Research is fundamental in human understanding as it is utilised in the advancement of knowledge of the world (Walton, 2016). However, research conducted should not come at the cost of harm to those who participate in such studies, and as such, there are ethical principles which studies should abide by to ensure that the participants and information of a study are protected (Piotrowski, 2013). There are three fundamental principles as outlined in the Belmont Report which can act as an ethical framework through which to do research; respect for persons, beneficence, and justice (Rice, 2008). The first principle of respect for persons is comprised of two components regarding the autonomy of individuals. The first relates to the concept that each person has the right to self-determination, and the second component relates to the idea that vulnerable people are given added protection to prevent the threat of exploitation. Thus, this leads to the requirements that participants have informed consent and hence voluntarily consent to participate, participant confidentiality is protected, and participants have the right to withdraw from research without being. The second principle of beneficence refers to the idea that research should be designed in a manner that maximises benefits and minimises harm, with researchers needing to determine whether the risks of research is worth the benefits gained. The last principle of justice addresses the notion of equitable distribution of research risks and benefits, to ensure that there is an equal distribution of benefits and risks across society. Piotrowski, N 2013, ‘Research ethics in psychology’, Salem Press Encyclopedia of Health. Rice, R 2008, ‘The historical, ethical, and legal background of human-subjects research, Respiratory Care, vol. 53, no. 10, pp. 1325-1329. Walton, I 2016, ‘Ethical Research’, Midwifery Matters, no. 151, pp. 18-20. #S234UOW18 #Lab11 #Thu830

Karissa Zantiotis said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Ethics are seen as what controls and directs sociological research and they encourage an environment of trust, accountability, and mutual respect among researchers. Ethical research has challenges that need to be controlled in order for the research not to breach ethical standards. The key principles of ethics in protecting people are based upon respect for the person, beneficence and justice. It is vital that the respect and privacy of the individual is protected. Sociological research has no meaning if there is no benefit to society, this is the main purpose in undergoing the research. One obstacle of ethical research that could be faced is the knowledge of the researcher and there capabilities in undertaking research. If a researcher had no knowledge regarding ethical considerations then the results will be inaccurate, invalid or unreliable. Another obstacle involves a researcher exploring sensitive issues, the researcher had a responsibility in protecting the participant and ensuring they have a positive experience. If they do not follow the ethical standards above then the participant would not be comfortable and therefore inaccurate or invalid results could be made. Overall the benefit of a study must outweigh the potential risk for participants. The researcher has this responsibility of producing and collecting data in an honest manner and presenting it as worthy to research. Research may seem simple but it is definitely not an easy task to assume. Skilled researchers are needed and they must strictly follow ethical principles otherwise the research is at risk of being unethical and posing harms to its participants. #S234UOW18 #Lab11 #Thu830 References: Walter, Maggie (ed.). 2013. Social Research Methods. 3rd Edition. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KG9QPGEKChs

Kayla Whitten said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Research has not always followed strict ethical protocols. It was not until 1949 when the Nuremberg Code for human experimentation was created as a result of Nazi war crimes, which later formed the basic principles for ethical research (Habibis 2013). Ethical research is when researchers abide by ethical values and principles to ensure participants are protected from any form of harm (Habibis 2013). These decisions are not decided based on their convenience or productiveness, rather the decisions are made based on what is morally right or wrong (Habibis 2013). The National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans has listed four key principles that research must follow to maintain being ethical (Habibis 2013). These include research merit and integrity – when the outcome of research has potential benefits and is honest and truthful; justice – research involves fair treatment and fair distribution of participants; beneficence – researchers take into account the risks and the benefits of research to participants, are sensitive to the welfare of participants and reflect on the possible social and cultural implications of participants; and, respect for human beings – researchers have regard for the welfare, beliefs, perceptions, customs and cultural heritage of participants involved in research (Habibis 2013, p. 78). Ethical research also has challenges that need to be controlled in order for the research not to breach ethical standards. These include research volunteers, as volunteers can manipulate the research and financial incentives for research participants, as this can be seen as coercion (Habibis 2013). Overall, research is not an easy task. It must involve skilled researchers and strictly follow ethical principles otherwise it risks being unethical and posing harms on participants. #S234UOW18 #Lab11 #Thu830 Reference: Habibis, D 2013, ‘Ethics and Social Research’, in M Walter (ed.), Social Research Methods, 3rd Edition, Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, pp. 73 – 93.

Elizabeth Carter said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Sociological research is governed by ethics as it is a form of human experimentation. The key principles and challenges in the pursuit of ethical research include consideration of the benefit to society, risk minimisation, informed consent and acknowledgement of conflicts of interest (Habibis 2013). Firstly, without a benefit to society there is no purpose in undergoing the research. The purpose of sociological experimentation is that the research will produce a positive outcome for humanity and its future betterment (Walter 2013). Next, the idea of risk in research is a key consideration. The context of risk is encompassing of how studies are performed such as interventions, what questions are asked and what people are recruited for the research. These principles of risk relate to the key challenges of risk minimisation in which safety of participants must be considered relative to the overall benefits of the study (Zimbardo 1973) e.g. The Stanford Prison Experiment neglected risk minimisation with the result of trauma to participants. Another principle is informed consent in the pursuit of transparency (Martin & Marker 2007). This can be obtained as written or verbal consent in which the participants autonomously authorise their conditions of participation in full knowledge of any conflicts of interest (Faden and Baeuchamp 1986). They do this in full awareness of what the study entails and its purpose. This involves an informed decision based on assurances of confidentiality, anonymity and freedom to cease participation which is a developing challenge in internet-based studies where there is a newly-emerging researcher-researched dynamic (Greenwald 2002) e.g. ‘Facebook Emotional Manipulation Study’ (Hunter 2014). #S234UOW18 #Lab11 #Thu830

Maggie Bateman said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Ethical research applies key ethical principles (basic/complex) to guarantee moral standards direct research practice (Habibis, p. 73) and to minimise the chance of tainting research data. The key principles of ethical research include: - Informed and voluntary consent: Ensures participants have an understanding of the purpose, methods, risks and benefits of the research for society, allowing the participants the ability to make a conscious choice to participate. (Habibis pp. 77-79) - Do no harm: Aims to protect participants by ensuring research is either negligible or low-risk (Habibis, p. 77), and considers the integrity, respect, beneficence and justice of the human subjects (NHMRC 2007) - Privacy, confidentiality, and anonymity: Research manages data and data storage in order to ensure the privacy of an individual’s identification and the information they provide, resulting in sound data collection. (Habibis, pp. 82-83) - Research merit, integrity and beneficence: By ensuring the benefits of a study outweigh the potential risk for participants, researchers are practicing merit and are collecting data in an honest manner. (Habibis, pp. 78, 84) The performance of ethical research depends on the ability to collect data in accordance with the above principles and prove its worth to research, as the cost and burden (financial and time) and the potential for conflicts of interest (financial/personal/professional) are weighed up against the potential consequences of the data (Behavioural and social science, p. 42). Zimbardo (1971) challenged these principles in his prison study by violating his participants and enforcing feelings of “guilt” as is acknowledged in the link below (. By practicing an investigation, researchers are ensured their study is worthwhile to the subject area and is ethically sound. Zimbardo Ethical Breach #S234UOW18 #Lab11 #Thu830

Kellie John said : Guest Report 5 months ago

Ethics refers to the moral standards that govern individual’s behaviour, ethical research refers to making sure ethical principles govern experiments in order to promote participants wellbeing and increase the reliability of research findings. The key principles in ethical research include research merit, integrity, justice, beneficence and respect for human beings. Respect for human beings encompasses the concepts of confidentiality, informed consent, anonymity and protection from harm (Walter 2013). These principles also help create experiments that reduce participants feelings of unsteadiness or nervousness through clearly identifying the safe way research is being conducted. A potential obstacle of ethical research includes the skill and capability of the researcher. A researcher must have knowledge regarding ethical considerations, research methods and data analysis in order to avoid producing results that are inaccurate, invalid or unreliable. Another potential obstacle involves researchers investigating sensitive issues, they have a responsibility to promote the participants wellbeing by taking necessary precautions that can be time consuming to create. For example, when conducting an interview about divorce it may involve the researcher creating a preamble, information sheet and a phone list of health services to ensure the participant is aware of the sensitive topic and purpose of the study. Another challenge involves the concept of beneficence, ensuring the experiments benefits outweigh the risk to participants. This process can be difficult due to participants all having different life experiences and understandings. This causes participants to interpret and answer questions in diverse ways, therefore making analysis and preparation for reactions to sensitive concepts difficult (Walter 2013). #S234UOW18 #Lab11 #Thu830 Reference 1. Walter, Maggie (ed.). 2013. Social Research Methods. 3rd Edition. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press. Online reference that assists in explaining ethics in research 1. Ngu Moi Kwe, 2016, Research Ethics, online video, 17 Feb, viewed 15 May 2018,

Kayla Whitten said : Guest Report 7 months ago

According to Walter (2013, p. 10), the key point of a research question is to identify the main purpose of an individual’s research. This is done in question form (Walter, 2013). Through the individual’s research questions, important ideas are established which seek to explore and explain the research, as well as to identify the key concepts of the proposed research (Walter, 2013, p. 10). Whilst there are different types of research questions, what makes a good and bad research question is what is of interest. To give a single definition of what makes a good or bad research question will be dependent on a number of variables (Walter, 2013). These include the individual’s gender, culture, race and their economic position, as these are part of an individual’s standpoint which shape the way they see the outside world (Walter, 2013, p. 11). As described by Patulny (2018), a good research question must be precise, be clear on the purpose of the research question and to be interesting, to both the researcher and those reading the research (Patulny, 2018). Therefore, it can be said that a bad research question is too general or vague which then results in the research becoming overloaded with useless information as the topic has not been translated into a specific and clearly define research question (Ezzy, 2010, p. 65). As research is so often designed to create and test theory, it can be assumed that only a good research question is able to create a good and testable theory, whereas a bad research question will not be able to appropriately test against or create a theory as it lacks the precision, clarity and curiosity of good research questions (Patulny, 2018). References: - Ezzy, D 2010, ‘The research process’, in M Walter (ed.), Social Research Methods, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, pp. 61 – 86. - Patulny, R 2018, ‘Introduction – Social research and Research Questions’, lecture, SOC234, University of Wollongong, delivered 26 August. - Walter, M 2013, ‘The nature of social science research’, in M Walter (ed.), Social Research Methods, 3rd ed., Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, pp. 3 – 23. #S234UOW18 #Thu830 #Lab1

Kayla Whitten said : Guest Report 7 months ago

According to Walter (2013, p. 10), the key point of a research question is to identify the main purpose of an individual’s research. This is done in question form (Walter, 2013). Through the individual’s research questions, important ideas are established which seek to explore and explain the research, as well as to identify the key concepts of the proposed research (Walter, 2013, p. 10). Whilst there are different types of research questions, what makes a good and bad research question is what is of interest. To give a single definition of what makes a good or bad research question will be dependent on a number of variables (Walter, 2013). These include the individual’s gender, culture, race and their economic position, as these are part of an individual’s standpoint which shape the way they see the outside world (Walter, 2013, p. 11). As described by Patulny (2018), a good research question must be precise, be clear on the purpose of the research question and to be interesting, to both the researcher and those reading the research (Patulny, 2018). Therefore, it can be said that a bad research question is too general or vague which then results in the research becoming overloaded with useless information as the topic has not been translated into a specific and clearly define research question (Ezzy, 2010, p. 65). As research is so often designed to create and test theory, it can be assumed that only a good research question is able to create a good and testable theory, whereas a bad research question will not be able to appropriately test against or create a theory as it lacks the precision, clarity and curiosity of good research questions (Patulny, 2018). References: Ezzy, D 2010, ‘The research process’, in M Walter (ed.), Social Research Methods, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, pp. 61 – 86. Patulny, R 2018, ‘Introduction – Social research and Research Questions’, lecture, SOC234, University of Wollongong, delivered 26 August. Walter, M 2013, ‘The nature of social science research’, in M Walter (ed.), Social Research Methods, 3rd ed., Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, pp. 3 – 23.

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