Suburbia, meh … Give me Inner City! Cosmopolitan, gentrified, creative … and diverse?

In a globalised, digital world, with expensive inner city housing and commuting nightmares, surely we should all just live AND work in the suburbs? Work online, or in little local community working co-ops? Save ourselves all that expense and travel time? And yet we don’t. Something draws us back to the inner city, in ever-greater numbers.

The last few decades have seen a counter-movement away from suburban life, as young educated people and skilled migrants return to live in the inner city. These middle class knowledge-workers, identified as cosmopolitans by Robert Merton and Herbet Gans in the mid-twentieth century – outward-oriented, mobile, highly educated, networked professionals, students, artists, intellectuals and bohemians –now dominate inner urban environments. Richard Florida calls them the ‘creative class’, and notes that congregations of these workers appear in particular areas and particular cities (e.g. New York, San Francisco, Silicon Valley – and in Australia, inner Sydney and Melbourne). They attract both businesses AND other creative workers, because they give the business a competitive advantage in the ‘creative age’, and because the diversity they bring to an area – culturally, technologically, ethnically – is attractive to other creative workers.

They have changed the inner city. Sharon Zukin notes how the cosmopolitans have not only changed the mixture of people in the inner-city streets, but also changed the character – and costs – of the streets themselves. Carefully considered consumption choices have lead to the urban renewal of housing, shopfronts and amenities, with cafes, bars, food and clothing outlets and farmers markets selling organic, free-range, ethical products now a staple of inner city living. As Zukin notes in ‘Consuming Authenticity‘:

“Often the same men and women are shopping for fresh goat cheese, supporting fair trade coffee, and restoring old brownstone houses in these socially ‘marginal’ areas. Just as they take pleasure in choosing alternatives to mass-market products – ‘pure,’ original, ethnic, fresh – so they are willing to take risks in choosing where to live. But in the process of developing alternative consumption practices, they contribute to changes that make these spaces more desirable” (2008, p725)

However, there are problematic elements to this renewal. ‘Desirable’ is synonymous with ‘expensive’. This is not only manifest  in the spiralling prices of houses and rentals in inner city areas, but in the rampant inflation of organic, ethical, and ethnic foods sold to creative types searching for ‘authenticity’ in their consumption choices, which as John Oliver notes in a recent satire of the American Whole Foods chain, sometimes borders on the ridiculous.

At a more serious level, the consumer driven gentrification wave has lead to the displacement of the working-class and migrant workers who have traditionally inhabited the inner city for many decades. In looking at the differences between cities and regions, Florida notes that as business compete to attract the creative class, the cream of the gifted middle class and skilled migrant workers are sucked into the largest ‘creative’ global cities and spaces, leaving many home countries and cities to suffer from ‘brain drain’. In looking at the differences within the city, Zukin points out how existing, long-term working class residents and unskilled migrants are displaced in inner city areas of high migrant, middle-class intake, via increases in the cost of housing and living. And Kathleen Dunn notes how even the production chain and public space of traditional migrant workers working in the humblest of jobs – such as NYC street vendors – is being coopted and displaced by the wave of middle-class hipster food trucks sweeping the inner cities of America (and Australia).

Each of these factors points to widening inequality; between different global cities, between the inner and outer cities, and within the inner city itself, often between older and newer migrant groups. They also raise concerns over the long-term sustainability of such expensive living arrangements, the maintenance of diversity and authenticity if the poor are driven out, and the stability of neighborhood social cohesion.

#S208UOW17 #Tut10

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42 Comments

  1. This shift of movement from the outer suburbs to the inner city was evident in the rise of work in the local suburbs as well as the increase in housing which shifts the housing market to the inner city living quarter. The ‘creative class’ which is mentioned in the Florida reading helps explain how these inner city areas are becoming more attractive to the skilled professionals who are now dwelling there known as the creative class.

    Due to these areas becoming more appealing in the ways that the creative class see a certain economic value to them this leads to the inner city areas becoming more heavily dense as well as populated. They see a sort of growth that lies within these inner city suburbs and because of this it creates value as well as a place for plenty of work and economical growth.

    However due to the creative class coming into these inner city areas the previous inhabitants are either forced to move out due to price increase of houses and properties or due to lack of work because of the high surplus of workers moving in and working.

    Could this possibly lead to a surplus of inhabitants as well as economy growth, if so sprawl will increase and it can only lead to over crowded suburbs and the original purpose of these inner city suburbs will soon be diminished due to the economical changes in society.

    (Florida, Richard. (2003). “Cities and the Creative Class.” City and Community 2(1): 3-19.)

    #S208UOW #TUT10 #WED1430

  2. Richard Florida (2003) in his paper discusses the creative class. He focusses on the rise of this type of class and how it looks at diversity and creativity as the basic building blocks of innovation and regional and national growth (Florida, 2003). There is a myth that geography is dead because of the increase in technology meaning people do not have to be together so they will not be together. However Florida (2003) disputes this by saying that people and the economy still remains concentrated in specific places. There are a number of sociologists including Park, Jacobs and Thompson that site the role places play as incubators of creativity, innovation and new industries (Florida, 2003). Florida’s (2003) ideas focus on the idea that creative people agglomerate around specific areas that inspire their creative. He also offers an alternative approach in the form of Robert Putnam’s theory that there is a decline in social capital because people are becoming more and more disconnected from others and from their communities but that they wanted strong community ties. Florida (2003) found that those he interviewed disagreed with this. They knew the importance of community but did not want it interfering in their personal lives. They wanted weaker ties as opposed to strong ties. The research needs to look at what influences creative people but also at the downsides, tensions and contradictions that this creative era presents (Florida, 2003).
    #S208UOW17 #Tut10 #Mon1130

    • I also found Florida’s (2003) article to be very interesting. I argued against what we tend to assume about cities in the present day. The most interesting part of this article, I found, was how, while we are disconnected from the community around us because we don’t want it intruding and tend to favour being online, geographical location is still important. It seems to me that geographical location today is more about image, prestige and convenience rather than community atmosphere itself. Would you agree with this?
      #S208UOW17 #Mon1130 #Tut10

      • the idea that people agglomerate around specific areas that inspire their creative is interesting to me, is this why the creative class live in the inner city, because that is where innovation occurs?

        #s208uow17 #mon1130 #tut10

  3. As Florida (2003) explains in his reading, the creative class is moving away from cooperate/working class areas to return to live in the inner city.
    These areas aren’t possess the 3T’s, technology, talent, and tolerance. Due to this there has been a shift in migratory trends and economic geography. Florida (2003) calls this the “new great migration”, but as a result of this there appears to be inequality. This inequality comes from these creative class coming in and ‘exporting’ out the lower skilled class (Florida 2003). This gentrification of these areas can cause displacement and negative consequences to the people that are affected. An example of this is noted by Atkinson (2004), it was shown that landlords use tactics such as harassment, eviction and only accepting rental applications from young professionals even though both parties have demonstrated equal capacity for rent payment to ensure lower income tenants don’t get accepted. According to Biro (2007) they also increase the prices so that only higher payer renters apply. Migrants and lower income residents are then forced to move and relocate from the areas they have always lived in. This just adds to the concern mentioned by Roger regarding the diversity and authenticity of the suburban areas, and neighbourhood social cohesion if the ‘creative class’ take over these areas.

    #S208UOW17 #Tut10 #Wed4:30

    Atkinson, Rowland. “The Evidence on the Impact of Gentrification: New Lessons for the Urban Renaissance?” European Journal of Housing Policy, 2004, 4 (1), pp. 107-131.
    Florida, Richard 2003, Cities and the creative class, City & community, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 3-19. EQUELLA Resource
    Biro ’08, Jessica (2007) “Gentrification: Deliberate Displacement, or Natural Social
    Movement?,” The Park Place Economist: Vol. 15
    Available at: http://digitalcommons.iwu.edu/parkplace/vol15/iss1/12

    • Interesting to see that tactics by landlords and real estates haven’t changed since cities were initially shaped into the inner-city and suburbs we reside in today. This comparison of underhanded tactics to achieve the desired demographic within particular areas in modern gentrification processes and the initial processes of creating ‘car-friendly’ cities also draws a parallel with companies and wealthy individuals who benefit financially from the current structure. Motor-lobby groups and related petroleum industry interests played a major role in defining the modern city and ‘car-friendly’ policy indicates that their political influence is still significant (Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, 2017).

      Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, 2017. Investment Road and Rail Programme. [online] Investment.infrastructure.gov.au. Available at: http://investment.infrastructure.gov.au/funding/projects/

  4. Echoing Rogers arguments above, whilst there seem to be many positive outcomes, the general vibe of gentrification is that the people now moving to the city- the bohemians, the hipsters, the “Creative Class” (Florida, 2003)- profit greatly at the expense of the pre-existing residents, who receive a trendy, urban and increasingly unaffordable neighborhood with its café culture, boutiques, markets and clubs, an ever-expanding economy, eventuating in giant capitalist chain junk stores. As housing prices inflate, living costs can become unsustainable, gradually forcing these long-term residents into the periphery of society as they become economically and socially marginalized. This process has the potential to fuel racial conflict, class disparity and overall inequality.
    How can gentrification find a balance around positive changes and growth whilst maintaining and respecting the history and culture of a community and its people?
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    • I wholeheartedly agree with the process of gentrification potentially fuelling racial conflicts, class disparity and overall inequality. As stated in Florida (pg. 3) (based on Robert Putman’s social Capitol Theory) community life was said to have declined in the 20th century with this being “just one indicator of a broader and more disturbing trend” – “a long-term decline in social capital”; Putman believed people were becoming increasingly disconnected from one another and their communities, “disengagement in the declining participation”.
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    • I agree with your argument that the process of the creative class re-infiltrating the city has the potential to fuel racial conflict. I hear this often in relation to migration in Australia, “Don’t let them (skilled migrants) in, they’re taking our jobs”. Whilst migrants are not literally taking the jobs off of the working class, they are forcing them out of the city due to the skilled and professional orientation of the inner city in which they fit. Creating frustration among the working class as they must relocate to the suburbs and find new work or face long commutes.
      #S208UOW17 #Tut10 #Mon1630

    • High levels of diversity, promoted by tolerance being an intrinsic value within these creative centres, means that racial issues which have plagued the past may not be overt an issue relating to gentrification in this instance. However in categorising the ‘creative class’, the class struggle which underlies the race issue (Seale, 1991) and many other forms of discrimination definitely becomes relevant.
      In response to your question, I think the answer to more equitable results from gentrification is tied to economic determinism and the way society addresses ‘desirability’ as a whole. Once we move away from economic viability as the main driver for development and start relating viability to technological capabilities, gentrification as we now know it begins to produce different outcomes.

      Seale, B.,1991. Seize the time. 1st ed. Baltimore, Md.: Black Classic Press.

  5. Florida writes in ‘cities and the creative class’ () that cities have been the ‘vehicles’ for channeling and concentrating on creative energy to turn the energy into innovations and technical advancements and creating a new world of civilization. It is argued that the creative class; who consist of bohemian and hipster stereotypes; are where growth and development of cities and nations derives from, rather than it being a new concept. The idea is that the creative class reside in areas that inspire their creativity, which is generally the city as it is the cite for innovation, therefore the creative class are moving away from working class areas to live in the inner city and indulge in the cosmopolitan life.
    The creative class fit the bohemian/hipster stereotype and the city is transforming into their ‘scene’ with boutique shops, cafes, markets, clubs and organic everything; this gentrification could be another force pushing the ‘other’ out into the suburbs.

    #S208UOW17 #tut10 #mon1130

  6. Florida writes in ‘Cities and the Creative Class’ (2003) that cities have been the ‘vehicles’ for channeling and concentrating on creative energy to turn the energy into innovations and technical advancements and creating a new world of civilization. It is argued that the creative class; who consist of bohemian and hipster stereotypes; are where growth and development of cities and nations derives from, rather than it being a new concept. The idea is that the creative class reside in areas that inspire their creativity, which is generally the city as it is the cite for innovation, therefore the creative class are moving away from working class areas to live in the inner city and indulge in the cosmopolitan life.
    The creative class fit the bohemian/hipster stereotype and the city is transforming into their ‘scene’ with boutique shops, cafes, markets, clubs and organic everything; this gentrification could be another force pushing the ‘other’ out into the suburbs.

    #S208UOW17 #tut10 #mon1130

  7. The desire to move from the suburbs back into the inner cities has created these cosmopolitan areas populated by the creative class. Within these areas are a focus on diversity, technology and a higher-level education. As Florida (2003 pg. 10) points out areas with a high concentration of the creative class tend to rank highly as centers of innovation and high tech industry. These characteristics make these areas an attractive place for other like-minded people to live in and are an attractive prospect for businesses. The high level of tolerance in the creative class communities also make it a great place for immigrants to live. This further adds to the diversity to these areas, which is highly praised. However as these places become more desirable to live in, it pushes out the working class.
    #SOC208UOW17#Tut10#Mon1130

    • As more and more inner suburbs become more attractive to people such as the creative class, sprawl will increase dramatically and create a sort of suburb that attains within itself certain characteristics from those who move into such suburbs. As high tech industrial related areas open up more in suburbs people are more attracted to it as mentioned above and higher levels of tolerance are key for those moving into these suburbs to feel as a sense of belonging.

      #SOC208UOW17 #Tut10 #WED1430

  8. I agree, that the ‘creative class’ (Florida, 2003) are attracted to the city, to the high-tech, high-educated and diverse environment. And as you said, it’s these type of people that attract more of the same-like minded people, therefore creating cities filled with the creative class. People crave to live in these cosmopolitan areas, we want to live in the ‘new’ and and move on from the old (suburbia). Social media and the internet boast about this type of living, we frequently see people who have are living these glorious inn-city, lives and we want it for ourselves, but I think we forget as Roger said, that ‘Desirable’ is synonymous with ‘expensive’. I like your point on that because the cosmopolitan areas do have a high level of tolerance means that migrants are accepted in these areas, creating and adding to its diversity.
    I agree that the more the inner-city gets filled with the ‘creative class’ the more it will push out the working class, or perhaps it will just lead to a new version of the working class created by the ‘bohemians.’

  9. I agree, that the ‘creative class’ (Florida, 2003) are attracted to the city, to the high-tech, high-educated and diverse environment. And as you said, it’s these type of people that attract more of the same-like minded people, therefore creating cities filled with the creative class. People crave to live in these cosmopolitan areas, we want to live in the ‘new’ and and move on from the old (suburbia). Social media and the internet boast about this type of living, we frequently see people who have are living these glorious inn-city, lives and we want it for ourselves, but I think we forget as Roger said, that ‘Desirable’ is synonymous with ‘expensive’. I like your point on that because the cosmopolitan areas do have a high level of tolerance means that migrants are accepted in these areas, creating and adding to its diversity.
    I agree that the more the inner-city gets filled with the ‘creative class’ the more it will push out the working class, or perhaps it will just lead to a new version of the working class created by the ‘bohemians.’
    #SOC208UOW17 #tut10 #Mon1130

    • Your point on diversity is interesting. Do you think the immigrants living in the inner city know that they are adding to the creative class of the inner city?
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  10. I find this weeks topic extremely interesting. Having visited both New York City and San Francisco myself, I genuinely find it so entrancing that there are so many walks of life throughout these cities. It’s amazing that you can see a lawyer or a high-ranking businessman/women walking past, and then see a artist painting or a wall or something similar in the same area. It’s interesting to see that these are the types of people who would most likely talk about “living in the suburbs, with more space etc.” but yet they all still migrate to the city. What is it about the city that draws people in? I agree wholeheartedly with Florida (2003) that these types of people are attracted to the city, but also as Michaela has stated above, it is these types of people that attract more of the same people, which in turn creates areas of the city with likeminded people. Everyone wants to have the best, they want to live somewhere ‘exciting and new’. But yet as Roger did state, many people confuse or overlook the fact that ‘desirable’ is synonymous with ‘expensive’. Cities are filled with creative class, but maybe this will create a new level of working class?
    #S208UOW17 #Tut10 #Mon1130

    • I think you make a good last point about this creating a new type of working class. There’s a lot of discussion about the shift from 9-5 jobs and corporate jobs to more freelance and creative careers, and that the idea of a “career” is changing. Additionally, our generation is set up to have several job changes throughout our lifetimes and not be able to afford our own homes. Perhaps instead of an attitude towards saving for future assets we are now spending on our current lifestyles, fuelling the ‘expensive’ lifestyle Roger stated, and creating a new typical work type?
      #SOC208 #tut10 #Wed14.30

  11. I find Florida’s article very interesting, when comparing the three different theories of how economies have changed over the times, and that how people cluster together for reasons based on the the three T’s- technology, talent and tolerance and how when regions and cities have these three critical functions they achieve economic growth and can only achieve this by having all three not just one.
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  12. I found interesting the notion presented by Florida, 2003 that the creative class and cosmopolitanism widens inequality particularly between the inner city and the outer city. The movement of the creative class back to the inner city creates a sense of exclusivity, in that the core creatives and creative professionals (Florida, 2003) are the only people that are now fit for inner city life. As Zukin (2008) noted, gentrification has the impact of displacing the existing working-class and ethnic minorities. This is as a result of no longer being able to afford inner city living as well as a sense of feeling as if they no longer belong.
    This ties back to the topic of unsocial cities in that people are being pushed to the suburbs, forcing longer commute times and a reduction of social cohesion between the classes. Creating unsocial cities built on exclusion and exclusivity.
    So should the inner city be reserved for those who can afford it and the creative class? I think not, this is causing a divide between Australian social classes.
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  13. In my opinion the suburbs have become such a mundane existence taken over by mass migration and the interests of developers. I imagine early on in the suburban existence homes would have been built into the environment with nature reserves in and around them. I gather this from my own observations of comparing 1950’s suburban developments to the ones now. Recent suburban developments seem to clear the land with houses being practically built on top of each other, so developers can squeeze in as many people as possible and earn more money. My final stereotype of these areas is that they bread a culture of spending hours commuting, working long hours to pay off the many possessions needed to fill ones over sized house, then being drained to the point where mind numbing reality tv becomes leisure time. For me this environment doesn’t seem like one thats very inspiring for those wanting to live a bohemian lifestyle, nor one that is full of consumers of creative products and services. Basically what I am getting at is that I can understand that shift of young educated people back into inner city neighbourhoods, our parents and grand parents have created a safe, comfortable life for themselves to grow old in the suburbs, but it does not cater to the needs and desires of young people, so why not gentrify cheaper areas of cities that young people can take ownership over and leave pieces of their generations identity. I feel we owe a lot to the people that are active in the gentrification process. As Karsten, Kamphuis and Remeijnse (2015) outline that globally central urban neighbourhoods are experiencing gentrification due to industrial production being increasingly replaced by knowledge, creativity and service based production. If these people directly engaged in the gentrification process just followed the trends of suburbanisation I feel we would remain to have mundane suburbs with people creativity being strangled, but also run down cities with no soul.

    Karsten, L, Kamphuis, A & Remeijnse, C 2015, ‘Time-out’ with the family : the shaping of family leisure in the new urban consumption spaces of cafes, bars and restaurants’, Leisure studies, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 166-181.

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  14. Although the ‘Australian Suburban Dream’ is the desired lifestyle, individuals are continuously commuting towards the inner city for work, shopping and social commitments. With the desirability of the inner city life comes inflation across the board with food, work and travel expenses at an all time high. As an individual who has grown up within the western suburbs of Sydney I can vouch for those who would label the city as an expensive and rare trip that only occurs under festive circumstances – birthdays, school excursions or weddings.
    So are individuals drawn to the inner city due to the platform of individuality and creativity it presents? As noted by Richard Florida, the ‘creative class’ congregate in particular areas where they attract businesses and fellow creative workers as well as providing means for diversity amongst cultural, technological and ethnic terms. With this being said, it is accurate that these individuals are leading their lives within the city in hope for something greater, perhaps somewhere else in the world.
    Unfortunately, with large businesses attracted by the ‘creative class’, the working and migrant classes have found themselves pushed forward into large globalised cities where housing cost is on a continual incline.
    It is important to maximise the potential of the inner city and its community without developing inequality. It is significant to take into consideration the cost of sustainable living as well as social cohesion.
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  15. I always used to think of gentrification as a bad thing, the word synonymous with destruction. Ruining “authentic” working class neighbourhoods, in hopes to attract a wealthier, “creative class”. According to Florida, ethnic and racial diversity is a key factor in America’s economic growth.
    One can see gentrification happening in large metropolis’ such as New York City at an alarming, daily rate as family run storefronts are flipped over into trendy restaurants and cafes. The newest, hippest places to spend your money. But, you also see this happening as locally as Wollongong. Within the 3 years I have lived in the area, I have seen a drastic change to Crown Street, and the influx of trendy local eateries.
    I feel slightly hypocritical, as I am within the target demographic that they are aiming for, but I feel that we all must be aware of these changes. New places aren’t always a bad thing, they help the economy, and create safety in a place that may not of otherwise been. Unfortunately, this also comes with the flip side of displacing people from their homes and family run businesses.
    Is gentrification a good thing?

    #SOC208 #TUT10 #Mon430

  16. A interesting notion presented in Florida 2003 who cites the works of Putnam’s social captital theory and the decline in connection to people. I agree whole heartly to this statement that their seems to be a decrease in connections between individuals in their towns and even in families. However, I would say that this is not just the result of the economy demands and geography planning but the impact of technology. For example these days kids do not go and play on the streets together and come up with innovative play but play mind numbing computer games. I wonder does this remove imagination and therefore problem solving in life. Furthermore, I would emphasise that this removal of connection for increase in economy productive is not seen in all cultures. As through my studies in the are of indigenous people social capital still occurs to some degree as they emphasise a sharing approach to their lives.

  17. I believe the nation of thinking that if people are living in the suburbs they should be able to work from there, in offices and from home in unviable. An area becomes a central business district because it has an abundance of similar workplaces and people who come together in a professional environment.
    It can be seen through history that people of similar interests, nationalities and socioeconomic status all migrate to the same areas.
    Also, if people are constantly in one area, say their house to work and have them time they can feel isolated as well as the feeling that you never leave you place of work and that you should be working.

    #SOC208 #TUT10 #MON430

    • I definitely agree with you Holly on the point that people of similar interests, nationalities and socioeconomic status all migrate to the same areas. – I am from the illawarra and have an ethnic background; it is from knowing why and where my grandparents moved to when they made to the move to Australia, that I can 100% back this point up. If you have moved to a foreign country of course you’d want to move to the same area as the people from home? For example, a lot of migrants from macedonia moved to cringila when they came to australia and hence why there is 3 Burek shops on the same street. As for on that same street there is a club called the St George Maltese club; this was placed there because of the maltese migrants that live in cringila aswell and because it is a central point for the local maltese people to come to including my family.

      It is through this point that there is emphasis on the connections of individuals to push for the economies productivity throughout all cultures.

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  18. Florida’s argument in ‘Cities and the Creative Class’ (2003) that when the ‘creative class’ comes to an area it widens inequality is very interesting. The movement of young, middle-class, educated people into the inner-suburbs transform the landscape; they bring new cafes, organic shops, boutiques and so on. Eventually, the inner-suburbs become too expensive for the traditional working class inhabitants.
    Right now, we can see this happening close to us in Sydney as gentrification pushes out disadvantaged groups from the trendy inner-city. This “government-driven gentrification” means that they are profiting at the expensive of those being driven out of their neighborhoods, because of soaring rents and the eradication of public housing the city has become “no longer a place where poorer people can live”.

  19. As mentioned in the lecture and Richard Florida’s reading on cities and the creative class (2013), it is evident that the cooperate working/middle class is moving away from the suburbs back to the inner city. This has occurred due to a resurgence in trends that relate to technology, creativity, ethnic diversity, and economic geography. Florida calls these groups of individuals the ‘Creative Class’, as they help restore and increase the value of areas in the city that were once less appealing to people over twenty years ago. This migration of people back into the cities attracts new age businesses and other creative thinkers who want to develop a community of likeminded people, which in turn leads to urban renewal, the increase of value in these areas, restoring pride to old rundown industrial constructs and the return to organic living, as seen in the popularity of farmer’s markets who sell free range fresh produce to this new class. Although there are many positive aspects that can be attributed to this renewal, problems have arisen because of this large influx of people. Many of the lower working class who have lived in these areas of the city for decades, cannot keep up with the increase of living and housing, and as a result most of them are displaced for such reasons. Work in fields that are associated with this new class (IT, engineering, arts) becomes highly competitive and difficult to find. Looking forward it will be interesting to see how this new change will affect not only the city but also the suburbs over the next twenty years.

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  20. As someone who is personally from a small rural town, I always thought of gentrification as a bad thing. I thought with the rise in populations, the idea of that “small community vibe” was lost. However, after this weeks class, I believe my opinion has changed. I guess gentrification allows for a more “creative” – as said by Florida – and diverse community. It allows for people to explore new concepts and present themselves as an individual without feeling any judgement. I also think in a way, it allows for us to communicate with each other. Although, I still believe there are many cons to gentrification, I think Florida’s idea on the “creative class” definitely presents some pros.

    • I agree with you too, I am also from a small place with a very big “community’ feel and I believe that the people and small councils in these areas influence us to believe that they should never change, a notion that is very unrealistic with the rapidly increasing population

  21. The gentrification of inner communities in places such as Sydney and Melbourne in theory are beneficial. They allow for the deteriorating infrastructure to get a much needed rejuvenation, and allow the area to be more desirable for home buyers. Through in practice the gentrification of inner communities like Sydney creates a distinction between the affluent and the poor. It increases land value which in-turn increases rental prices to a point where many are forced to leave and are forced to find other housing arrangements. The influx in new residents also shifts the design and layout of the communities. This outcome can leave existing residents feeling a disconnection from their communities. To ensure that this doesn’t occur local councils must work with developers and investors to make this gentrification a much more inclusion transition.

  22. Cities did get a stereotype of being busy, dirty, disorganised and and unauthentic from our parents generation and were seen as a place to work by people that lived in the suburbs. The move of more people living in the city is pushing for a change in its perception and liveability; people should be able to live and work where they want and shouldn’t have to live and work in the suburbs should they wish to pursue a city job and working environment. The ‘hipster’ movement of liveability in the city is an evident push for creating a happier, authentic environment. Whether we live in the suburbs or the city shouldn’t have to determine our access to certain resources or activities, such as fresh produce. It also reflects an attempt to improve the stigma of unsocial cities and reduced wellbeing of city dwellers and fits in with the current trend towards wellness and sustainability, with cosmopolitans pursuing activities such as farmers markets or thrift shopping, and creating value for cosmopolitan lives.
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  23. Florida (2003) stated that modern society has a myth of “geography is dead” as the internet, modern telecommunication and transportation system had made it to seem that people no longer have to be together physically to work. However, Florida refuted as there are people of ‘creative class’ who are returning to the inner city. These creative class includes “scientists and engineers, university professors, poets and novelists, artists, entertainers, actors, designers, and architects, as well as the “thought leadership” of modern society: nonfiction writers, editors, cultural figures, think-tank researchers, analysts, and other opinion-makers” (Florida 2003).

    It is interesting to see that middle-class workers are coming back to inner city. As Australian suburban dream is still working in Australia building McMansions in the suburbs this can be seen as a counter culture of housing and living.

    Still, there are problems with this gentrification such as displacement of the working class and migrant workers which is needed to be considered to protect people who were used to live in the inner city. What might be a solution to get people of wealth and poor coexist in the inner city?

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    • The disparity widened between creative class people and other people. As Roger mentioned in his blog, the gentrification could be seen as widening inequality between the inner and outer cities. In my opinion, some policies which can resolve people’s financial burden should be considered.

      #S208UOW17 #Tut10 #Wed1430

  24. Being the topic that I chose to do my presentation on, I was lucky enough do a lot of research on gentrification. Suburbs are constantly being built up to suit the middle class and each area is being revamped in a way that infrastructure becomes the centre focus. I think although gentrification does have a lot of positive aspects, it is also very dangerous because many of those in lower socioeconomic positions are being displaced. When this happens social support systems are disrupted and communities are being divided. Do we want divisive or do we want inclusive? Perhaps the only time we become inclusive is if we see that an individual’s talent or something that they own can benefit our community? I think that gentrification needs to happen in moderation and every community does not need to be overrun by new inhabitants.

    Going with the topic of last week – it may possibly be even easier to sprawl rather than to revamp a community and change its economy by adding an influx of new families and individuals. Is gentrification our only option? Maybe not. If we have the space in Australia to sprawl, which we clearly do, we can adapt to this way of expanding our communities. If work is an issue, and travel to work usually is, perhaps major companies may be able to create business districts outside the inner city in the open land which is not used (some parts of western and outer Sydney are already doing this). Do the benefits of gentrification become overshadowed by the downfalls?

  25. Florida (2003) writes about the ‘creative class’. Florida (2003, p.5) introduced the Putnam’s opinion. In Putnam’s opinion, it is mentioned that people are less hope to be part of communities. Putnam considers this situation might continue in social life in the long run. However, Florida (2003, p.5) conducted his research, and concluded his opinion which is against Putnam’s opinion. From his own research, it was revealed that people seldom wished the connection in their communities which is mentioned by Putnam. If anything, Florida (2003, p.5) states that people recognize the importance of community, and they were trying not to make the connections which is mentioned by Putnam.

    According to Florida (2003,p.8), this creative class refers to “members who engage in work whose function is to “create meaningful new forms.”” In addition, Florida (2013, p.8) estimates that there are 38 million Americans of creative class, which occupy approximately 30% of workforce in the United States. It is also mentioned that the creative class occupied less than 20% in the 1980s. Moreover, Florida (2013, p.8) writes that this 30% of the workforce are paid enough to use their creativity in their work. Therefore, the rise of the creative class can be seen these days. Furthermore, it is also stated that these people who are in the creative class are now moving away from traditional communities to inner cities. According to Florida (2003, p.10), these people tend to live in the areas which are “centers of innovation and high tech industry”. This might attract the creative class people and also make them move to inner cities.

    Because of moving to inner cities by the creative class, the disparity widened between creative class people and other people. As Roger mentioned in his blog, the gentrification could be seen as widening inequality between the inner and outer cities. In my opinion, some policies which can resolve people’s financial burden should be considered.

    #S208UOW17 #Tut10 #Wed1430

  26. With the changing global market place, evolution of technology and emerging flexible work environments has changed the ways individuals think, act and spend their time. We are seeing a shift in the trait of the modern Australian homebuyers where as Gans (1968) & Merton (1949) identifies a new generation, which lives an entirely different lifestyle then in previous times. This change however can be problematic in some instances where the relocation to areas according to distinct characteristics forms disparities between locations. These locations can also start out as a unique culture, and then when the trend adapts, it becomes the norm and the prices of homes, businesses and retail are seen to rise. One instance of this is by John Oliver who points out the sometimes-humorous side to adaption of innovative trends. Such as the rise of “organic” Whole Foods Chain sales in cities where there is no close proximity to organic farms, a possible way to help compensate a growing lack of green space in cities as the population density is only on the rise.
    #S208#Tut10#Wed1430

  27. Richard Florida explains in his article that congregations of young professionals and a mixture of middle class students, artists, intellectuals and ‘bohemians’, often referred to as hipsters in recent times, have increasingly moved from suburban living to dominate the inner city urban environment. In doing so, the creative class, individuals and businesses can essentially feed off one another and provide competitive advantage to businesses in these areas, while all those involved in the ‘creative age’, bring diversity to the area, culturally, ethnically and technologically, which is increasingly attractive to others of the ‘creative class’ with a similar mindset.

    Throughout my time living in Sydney, I was able to understand this experience somewhat first-hand, without being completely aware of what was happening at the time. Suburbs such as Surry Hills, Balmain and Newtown are becoming increasingly a mixture of the ‘creative class’ (florida 2003) and occupying habitants of these areas being from the working class are becoming less and less apparent. This Gentrification of the inner city urban areas forces previous residents of these areas to move away due to the increasing price of housing and cost of living due to the influx of the similar minded ‘creative class’ seeking their lifestyle in these urban environments.

    As cities fill with similar minded people all wanting to experience their creative culture, with fellow members of the ‘creative class’, where is the line drawn with the significant increases in cost of living and house prices driving out another complete social class who cannot afford to live in these areas? I wonder if development to the point of significant urban consolidation and overpopulation of these areas will be when people realize that it is no longer desirable.
    #S208 #Tut10 #Wed1430

  28. I believe that individuals are not only moving into major cities for work related circumstances but there has been a general shift towards seeing the city as an attractive aesthetic for younger generations.
    This “creative class” as stated by Florida (2003), are very much drawn to the technological advancements, diversity and high speed environment of the city and I believe these types of people are living a certain lifestyle that younger generations are looking up to and aspiring to lead similar lives.

  29. I believe that individuals are not only moving into major cities for work related circumstances but there has been a general shift towards seeing the city as an attractive aesthetic for younger generations.
    This “creative class” as stated by Florida (2003), are very much drawn to the technological advancements, diversity and high speed environment of the city and I believe these types of people are living a certain lifestyle that younger generations are looking up to and aspiring to lead similar lives.
    #S208UOW17 #Tut10 #Mon1130

  30. I believe that the “creative class” are moving to the inner cities because they see it as an opportunity to expand their knowledge and develop new ideas. The inner cities are where most development happens, like Roger and others have said being around other like-minded creative people there are more opportunities to spread ideas and develop new ones. The city lifestyle provides a perfect environment for the creative class to keep up with new ideas, and new technologies in the high paced lifestyle that is sought by so many younger generations today.

    #S208UOW17 #Tut10 #Mon1130

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