Global Cities, Post GFC – Space or Flow?

In the 2015 Catalyst program ‘Future of Australian Cities, Julian Bolleter claims that Australia will need to build a new Sydney every ten years for the next ninety years, to keep up with the expected growth in population. This raises several questions, but perhaps foremost amongst them are: where are all these people coming from, and how will we cope? To immediately rule out several misconceptions, the concern here is not about an explosion in the birth rate or the number of refugees we are taking in, nor is it about dealing with the widespread settlement of people in poorly serviced, remote, non-arable spaces.

It is primarily about big cities taking in large numbers of external (mostly highly skilled) migrants from overseas, as well as young, educated, professional internal migrants from rural and suburban areas, moving to the inner cities in pursuit of jobs and lifestyle. Whether from without or within, people are moving to where the employment and lifestyle opportunities are concentrated, in the biggest and richest global cities around the world. And the concentration of these people, as I mentioned last week in referring to Richard Floridas’ ‘creative class’, attracts money, capital, business, and economic growth. The money follows the people, who follow the money, who follow the people, etc …

Saskia Sassen notes that cities have changed from natural sites of trade (near harbours, plantations, mines, etc) into sites of finance, communications, and specialized services. Foremost amongst these are the Global Cities, the hubs of investment activity that serve as critical, strategic, infrastructure nodes providing specialized, complex skills and resources – legal, technical, and particularly financial – to the global economy. This is similar to what Manuel Castells calls the Space of Flows. His basic premise is that place has become less important relative to the flow of capital, information and people, and that power now diffuses through a global network of people and capital, rather than residing in one institution, such as a corporation, government, or state. He does note though, in keeping with Sassen, that ‘nodal’ centres appear in the global network. These are concentrations of specialised, sub-contracting services in leading cities around the world, which control the flow of activity and workers as needed (flexibly) to suit demand. In either theory, the urban form is shaped by the flow of capital and demands for mobility and profit, not the living requirements of urban residents.

The flow of such capital and human resources into global cities, and away from other cities and spaces, reduces the capacity for citizens in either location to democratically construct cities they way they would like. Global cities attract and distribute finance and services, but are subject to the distortionary pressures of dealing with the great influx of the world’s workers and their consumption practices. Sassen notes that:

the Global City generates a sharp rise in the demand for both high-level talent and masses of low-wage workers. What it needs least are the traditional modest middle classes so central to the era when mass consumption was the dominant logic; larger cities with more routinized economies do continue to need them” (p98).

This transformation of a city into a space for the rich that drives out the middle classes can be glimpsed in the intense escalation in housing prices in places like Sydney. Whilst driven in part by the Australian national hobby of real estate speculation and permissive taxation, the feverish rise in prices is also due in part to the continuing interest of foreign investors (particularly Chinese investors) in buying up new housing stock. Now, as Jason Twill notes, we are not only facing a situation where the older, urban poor are being priced out of gentrified inner city communities, but young, educated people are being priced out as well. In other countries, this has led to a rejuvenation of ‘second-tier’ cities that accept the ‘refugees’ from the Global Cities (e.g. Portland, Philadelphia in the US), but as Twill notes, Australia only has a few cities for such people to move to. Australia’s future ‘Creative Class’ is in danger of fragmenting.

Meanwhile, cities in developing countries away from the metropole are forced into increasing levels of competition over lowering taxes, to attract finance, services, and knowledge workers; and many fail to attract the resources that they need. Trevor Hogan notes that there are now over 25 cities in the world with more than 10 million people each, and that a number of such large cities in the Asian region are experiencing what he calls ‘informal hyper growth’, with large, rapidly-growing youthful populations, high immigration from rural to urban areas, and a poor citizenry working mostly in a non-organised informal economy. He notes that 40-60% of residents live in home-made housing in unplanned, fragmented, sprawling settlements with inadequate infrastructure, social services, transport connections, and poor urban governance. Such environments – well outside the rich nodal centres of the space of flows – present an enormous challenges to urban planners around the world.

How can we attract the resources to the areas that need them – and away from the global cities that become distorted by the overabundance of capital and people – in a post GFC globalised world, where large companies and agglomerations are criticised (rightly) for having more collective power than the world’s governments? As Florida and Sassen note, space is still as important as ever – and largely inescapable for the poor – so what can we do to redirect the flow? In an era of resurgent protectionism, rather than restricting the movement of needed capital and people, perhaps we should pay more attention to its distortionary effects, and think about the kinds of agreements and regulations we might need to better and more equitably direct what is needed to where it actually needs to go?

Posted in Opinion, Research, SOC208 - Cities, Communities and Families, UOW, Urban Studies.

49 Comments on Global Cities, Post GFC – Space or Flow?

Liam Marsh said : Guest Report 2 years ago

I think particularly in Australia, coastal and big city living will always be desirable as that is what Australia is known for. We are known for our beautiful beaches and immaculate big cities such as Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane. With the overpopulation of major cities it is obvious that those who can't afford to live there expand into surrounding suburbs or other smaller cities. Take for example Sydney and Wollongong, there are many people who work in Sydney but can't afford to live there so they live in the smaller city of Wollongong as they still seek the city lifestyle. This in turn increases the population of cities like Wollongong which then makes the housing/rental prices in the area go up. The increase in pricing means that people that lived in Wollongong who can no longer afford to live there then spread out into the suburbs surrounding, causing an increase in price again, and the cycle goes on. As pointed out in previous lectures/blogs, majority of employment opportunities are in the major cities, however it is quite unaffordable to live there. This means a constant expansion process to keep up with the influx of skilled workers to cities. #S208UOW17 #Tut11 #Mon1130

David Scognamiglio said : Guest Report 2 years ago

I agree with the point that Sassen makes that cities have changed from places of a natural setting to more of a financial one. This is evident with the formation of busy Center Business Distinct and the development of huge skyscrapers that are owned by financial companies. This is a transition that can is inevitable. Subsequently, This is negatively impacting developing nations as their skilled migrants are leaving to pursue a much more opportunistic future. In comparison, The development of cities into spaces for the rich are driving the middle class and people who have lived there all there lives. Places like Sydney have seen its residents been forced out to make way for development and infrastructure that will only benefit those who have the means to afford it. What can Australia and developing nations do to stop this transition of cities.

Rebekah Fisher said : Guest Report 2 years ago

It's a terrifying thought that we are being forced to construct great big cities every ten years like Sydney to keep up with the sheer influx of people to our country, and supplying accomodation to the new generation coming through. Yet, I find it surprisingly refreshing that this is largely due to the result of highly educated people moving within the areas where jobs require certain skills and qualifications. I am pleased that this is happening, because it means that, in turn, our education systems becomes more competitive, more challenging, and even more highly regarded than it's already is. When this happens, the standards, end result (training), and expectations behind the outcomes of university degrees and other institutions' qualifications, increase as well. For example, if this were to be the case, teachers that are qualified and trained extensively, begin to provide better quality education within public sector schools. This translates to better education to a younger generation, which continues to maintain the competitive drive, and higher quality services that can be provided. I understand that this may potentially start to exclude people from jobs and positions that they want, but it's always been the Australian philosophy to work hard (hard yaka) for something that needs to get done. We praise people for it constantly. I'd just love for that to dwindle down into the higher educations systems a little more as well. As of right now, for me at least, university feels as if it's the right this to do to get a job, because people tell us so, but if that need suddenly became a dire demand, than things would be drastically different. At the end of the day, if it means that later in life, I am being taken care of by doctors that have the qualifications of modern day Einsteins and I can have a happy life due to a medication that, a person that would be considered a general job blow today, created then I am happy. #S208UOW17 #tut11 #mon1130

Grace Potter said : Guest Report 2 years ago

I too am sceptical of how much change will need to occur in order to make Sydney fit for the steady increase in population that is flocking to metropolitan life. In terms of features such as public transport and roads there is a long way to go. Sydney needs to introduce much more convenient transport at higher intervals and, unlike American cities such as New York, our roads follow no grid and will need a major upheaval if they wish to change. This construction is likely to majorly affect Sydney - already the construction of the light rail is hugely disrupting Pitt Street Mall. Do we even have the urban planners to design new plans? Perhaps the solution here is outwards sprawl. #S208UOW17 #Tut11 #Wed14.30

Michael Sewell said : Guest Report 2 years ago

I agree with you on the fact that I do foresee smaller cities such as Wollongong following the same patterns of unaffordability of housing for those of the middle and lower class, I think there’s also an issue in attempting to keep the younger population/families in the areas that they are so commonly emigrating from. You mention that the government needs to a variety of housing options in terms of affordability for all classes, but I think more, for these second tier cities, such as Wollongong, that emphasis should be more on finding job opportunity in these cities. There needs to be a reason for the younger generation to stay in these cities, further infrastructure from government would be key in providing more opportunities for people to work in these areas. #SOC208UOW17 #tut11 #Wed14:30

Grace Potter said : Guest Report 2 years ago

#S208UOW17 #Tut11 #Wed14.30

Grace Potter said : Guest Report 2 years ago

There's an extreme abundance of people living/moving to the cities, including a large chunk of the young population, migrant workers and well-off families in city suburbs. Universities located in cities attract large amounts of students and there are larger amounts than ever before of students opting to get university degrees and pursue white collar careers rather than trades, pushing more people into the corporate sphere of the city. To keep up with the fast-growing demands and strains on infrastructure and resources, extensive urban planning is needed. Sydney needs to be updated every ten years, however this is fairly unlikely to happen due to the time it takes to put plans into place and the lack of urban planners. Consider the current change in transport to Moore Park, the new business hub and how long it has taken for work to happen on major roads and the light rail to be constructed. Better transport will, however, be a major part in pushing people out of the city centres and up/down the coast if they can shorten and ease the commute for workers. A greater focus on the benefits of living outside of the city may make people consider relocating, but it's a supply and demand problem that is contributing to highly populated cities; there aren't any jobs in rural areas, but that's because there aren't the people available to create demand for new jobs or fill those positions.

Michael Sewell said : Guest Report 2 years ago

I find myself discouraged the more I learn about the incumbent struggles that are changing my home town of Sydney regarding population and cost of living. Rising housing prices and the desire to migrate to Sydney for those chasing opportunities and lifestyle means that Sydney is only going to continue to expand and this places strain on the middle and lower class that cannot afford the continual expense that comes with the constant increase in size and density. I do think, however, that fringe cities, such as Wollongong and Parramatta, for example, are becoming increasingly attractive as a viable living option for those that desire to commute to global hubs such as Sydney for work. While being 1-1.5 hours travel from the city itself, the cost of living, standard of living and housing prices in these areas are significantly lower. However over time will these cities themselves become big enough to the point where they are considered ‘mega cities’? Will they become the ‘new Sydney’ that is needed to be created every 10 years? I myself find that I am eventually going to be contributing to the problem as I feel that after graduation, I’ll seek employment in Sydney due to the increased opportunity that the ‘global city’ brings. While I don’t have the solution to the problem, should there be an increased emphasis on government to develop second tier cities such as Wollongong with an influx of ‘jobs and growth’ in an attempt to curb or slow the foreseeable overpopulation and congestion of Sydney? #S208UOW17 #Tut11 #Wed14:30

Ryosuke Takahashi @roy23ald said : Guest Report 2 years ago

The disparity between the rich class and the lower class people could be more expanded in the future. I think it's on a global scale. Therefore, I suggest that some plans and policies should be strategized by the governments in terms of considering people’s financial burden so that cities can attract people and also people will be able to survive. In addition, I suggest the governments should reconsider the amount of investment in the cities so that can enrich the countries. #S208UOW17 #Tut11 #Wed1430

Ryosuke Takahashi @roy23ald said : Guest Report 2 years ago

As Roger mentioned in his blog, many people move from other countries or they move from other suburban cities in the country to inner cities to seek employment and to pursuit their lifestyle. For instance, ‘creative class’ will be one of the examples of this. Whether they move from without or within, People migrate from other cities to the areas where the employment and lifestyle opportunities are concentrated. In my opinion, this situation occurs on a global scale. In addition, the transformation of cities is mentioned. Cities have changed into the areas for rich people, and people who are in the middle class are driven out. This could lead to the rise in housing prices. From Trevor Hogan’s point of view which is stated in Roger’s blog, the same situation could be seen in my home country which is in Asia. I am not familiar with the situation in Australia, however I agree with his opinion. Even though aging society with a falling birth rate is one of the serious problems in my home country Japan, young generation are tend to move from rural to urban areas, and this has resulted in a decreasing workforce in rural areas. In response to the question in Roger’s blog, I suggest that some plans and policies should be strategized by the governments in terms of considering people’s financial burden so that cities can attract people. In addition, the governments should reconsider the amount of investment in the cities so that can enrich the countries. #S208UOW17 #Tut11 #Wed1430

Michael Bujcevski said : Guest Report 2 years ago

The idea of building a new city every 10 of so years is one that has both advantages and disadvantages towards it. Through societies growth we can see that it is possible to build over what is already standing however we can also possibly spread out the population towards the outer suburbs to decrease the population density within the inner suburbs. Sydney is starting to become very congested and work needs to be done to fix this ever so real problem that the city is faced with for future years to come. Another important factor is the creative class population which plays a big part in this eventual expansion of Sydney. Without the creative class of people entering specific inner city or outer city suburbs and populating them land wont be sold therefore nothing will ultimately come out of that land and it will be possible wasted. In the Kelly (2012) reading she mentions more than once that the human population are considered to be completely known as social animals which in a sense is true we interact with each other to avoid isolation and resentment. Going of this idea global networks are key in regards of maintaining and also controlling populations of people. With this hopefully we can see a small portion of both high rising buildings being built ans well as other social hubs being built in outer suburbs to maintain and further control the population of Sydney or Australia on that note as numbers are seen to grow to double in the next 10 years. #S208UOW17 #Tut11 #Wed1430

Michael Bujcevski said : Guest Report 2 years ago

Agreed that a combination of both building upwards and outwards is needed to maintain the population issue that will occur in the upcoming years. The ideal of sprawl is becoming more of an ineffective way to control and maintain population and again due to the combination of both building up and out it can somewhat help resolve this sprawl crisis cities will face in the upcoming years. #S208UOW17 #Tut11 #Wed1430

Michael Bujcevski said : Guest Report 2 years ago

The idea of building a new city every 10 of so years is one that has both advantages and disadvantages towards it. Through societies growth we can see that it is possible to build over what is already standing however we can also possibly spread out the population towards the outer suburbs to decrease the population density within the inner suburbs. Sydney is starting to become very congested and work needs to be done to fix this ever so real problem that the city is faced with for future years to come. Another important factor is the creative class population which plays a big part in this eventual expansion of Sydney. Without the creative class of people entering specific inner city or outer city suburbs and populating them land wont be sold therefore nothing will ultimately come out of that land and it will be possible wasted. In the Kelly (2012) reading she mentions more than once that the human population are considered to be completely known as social animals which in a sense is true we interact with each other to avoid isolation and resentment. Going of this idea global networks are key in regards of maintaining and also controlling populations of people. With this hopefully we can see a small portion of both high rising buildings being built ans well as other social hubs being built in outer suburbs to maintain and further control the population of Sydney or Australia on that note as numbers are seen to grow to double in the next 10 years.

Isabella Marzano said : Guest Report 2 years ago

Population growth is inevitable - how we handle this growth now will define our future. It's almost insane to think that every 10-20 years we will have to deal with the problem of creating a new city like Sydney just to cope with the growth. What we have to focus on is: where are people living now - and why would they move from where they are to the city? I think we should start to invest more in second tier cities such as Wollongong to slow down the inner city sprawl a bit more. Infrastructure, jobs, capital gain etc are all factors in why someone would move to the city. If companies started to build closer to the suburbs in the free spaces and created more job opportunities, people would potentially stay where they are. It is also important to note that we will either have to sprawl up or out. A potential downfall of sprawling up instead of out is that although it will create more space for us to develop and house more people that move to the area, it does congest the community it is built. I don't think that it's beneficial to shove as many people into an area as we can because this doesn't alleviate any stress on the community it just makes it crowded and harder to get jobs. Another downfall is that there will be less space per person if we sprawl up and this wouldn't suit large families which would potentially force the hand of individuals to have smaller families. However - we shouldn't have houses that are excessive in space because this creates a lot of wasted areas. A downfall of having less people in the community (which would come from sprawling out) is that the economy wouldn't grow as much and less money would be allocated for infrastructure. Essentially, I think we should have a mixture of both outward and upward sprawl so we don't encounter as many issues.

Dzenet Tinjak said : Guest Report 2 years ago

It was remarkable to read that for Australia to keep up with the expected growth in population, we would need to build a new Sydney every ten years for the next ninety years. Taking this into consideration it is rather worrying and conflicting to think about how our cities will cope. With the increase of population, our cities may not actually be expanding outwards nor may we witness growing urban sprawl, rather, our cities will endure the process of expanding ‘upwards’. But then what about our communities and our social structure? Won’t we just be exposed to more overcrowding and the prospect of a slowly deteriorating way of life? Are there any truly positive outcomes and consequences of our globalised cities? It seems like whether we go up or grow outwards, we are bound to undergo a number of issues. #S208UOW17 #Tut11 #Wed1430

rachael waistell said : Guest Report 2 years ago

Big cities, or mega cities like the commonly discussed mega city that will be created via joining together Sydney and the Newcastle region will always be a place of opportunity and freedom, when compared to urban and regional life scapes. Growing up in a small town, I lived a simple life of family and an abundance of sport among myself and my four siblings. I remember grocery trips for milk that became an hour long task as my father stopped to talk to what seemed like the entire population of Kiama. This simple life instilled a longing within myself for the freedom of the city, where more career opportunities existed and perhaps just once not every person I interacted with knew my name and my father’s name. I grew up in what could be described as a rural/regional town, however due to the high socioeconomic status of the town I faced minimal negatives associated with urban living. I went to a successful public school and had all the opportunities at my feet, however I still desire to live in a city of accepting and open people. I think that cities will always be a place of desire, where young people are drawn too out of necessity or to fulfil their dreams. With the rising issues of housing affordability within Australia, I believe for the youth that the city becomes the only place to grow and learn and develop a career.

Aimee Marchesi said : Guest Report 2 years ago

I can see the challenge arising that, whilst the creative class is one to build up these inner city hubs, they are commonly becoming priced out of these areas and as seen in other countries young educated individuals are moving to the regions or smaller "second tier" cities for example in the USA. However Australia has only a few cities, and may lead to an increased segregation of cultures, class and status structures in the outer regions. The affordability is increasing in inner cities as the population makes a shift back towards the locality and close proximity to employment opportunities in the city. You raise a valid point, and it will be interesting to see how urban planners and policies work in assisting these future predicaments. #S208UOW17 #Tut11 #Wed1430

Eunkyu Kim @egkim21 said : Guest Report 2 years ago

#soc208uow17 #tut11 #wed1430

Eunkyu Kim @egkim21 said : Guest Report 2 years ago

I think it is necessary that the government or any corporation to invest on basic infrastractures that though might not meet the criteria of central cities, people want to invest and be attracted to. Even though migrants are expecting to get a job in the cities, family's health care and education also counts as they move into the cities. I suggest that in order to move money and resources to other places that are needed, city planning and basic investments on social infrastructer are needed in order for the public to be attracted to invest.

Kareem Choubassi said : Guest Report 2 years ago

#SOC208UOW17 #tut11 #mon1130

Mark Tiere said : Guest Report 2 years ago

It is evident that within Australia, the majority of the population prefer to live on the coast and surrounding areas despite Australia’s large land mass. This is primarily due to better work opportunities and lifestyle as Roger mentioned. Having lived in the rural country town of Griffith located in the southern inland area of NSW, I argue against the notion that there is little employment opportunities in these spaces. Over the last 30 years, Griffith has expanded its population with migrants from all over the world due to the many work opportunities available in the town, such as factory work that produce and handle, wine, fruit, livestock and also farm work. Many of my extended family members have relocated from Auckland - New Zealand, a city very similar to Sydney that is also experiencing similar issues of high rent, expensive housing affordability, congestion and limited work opportunities. In saying that, these jobs that are on offer in many country towns are not desirable to many, particular skilled and educated citizens. But if there is high competition for high end government jobs then there is little option for these people but to relocate to areas that is less appealing from a lifestyle perspective. Having worked in the Baiada chicken factory before starting university, I came across many educated people who had completed degrees and postgraduate courses. They had to relocate to Griffith because of the problems stated above, but surprisingly enough they were content with the income they were receiving and many of them could afford to buy homes. I believe, it all comes down to individual preference, sacrifice and lifestyle. #S208UOW17 #Tut 11 #Mon1630

Savaan Goldsmith said : Guest Report 2 years ago

It is sadly the reality that Sydney is becoming more and more over populated which has many of us questioning what the future will hold for it and other major cities in Australia. Those wanting to move or live in Sydney already suffer from high housing prices which for many of us are unrealistic. Often this encourages overseas buyers, many of them Asian whom can afford the prices and are looking for investment properties in Sydney (our 'global city'). It is my belief that Sydney will continue to become more and more desirable therefore causing an increase in the expense of living. In this case smaller cities such as Wollongong may see an increase in demand and the cost of housing is much cheaper. The problem will however continue to grow causing more and more people to move further away. The Southern Highlands for example is a 1.5 hour drive from Sydney and was once a quiet country/rural area. Over a period of 8 years however I have seen a vast change in the quantity of people that live in the area. A number of housing estates have been developed catering for large amounts of people and new residents to the area will say they have moved down to the Highlands for a quieter life. I believe that areas such as this will continue to grow as well as a result, they are convenient in that they are close but yeah far enough away from Sydney. #s208 #tut11 #mon16:30

Amelia Collier said : Guest Report 2 years ago

I agree with your point made that moving away from the coast towards regional areas is necessary but will be a hard task. I believe that the idea of 'owning a home closer to the coast is more of a privilege compared to living in regional towns' is the dominant mind set of the Australian population. This shift may take years to implement as it is in fact changing the majority of people's beliefs and opinions. #S208UOW17 #Tut11 @Mon1130

Erin Park @erp777 said : Guest Report 2 years ago

It’s interesting to see Sydney considered a ‘global city’ when it is so small compared to New York, or London etc. Sassen (2000) explained that cities have changed from their origins of natural sites of trade to sites of finance, communications, and specialised services. Finance replaced goods as the most important trade object. Financial markets, advanced corporate service firms, banks, and headquarters of transnational corporations (TNCs) have become the crucial centres of international transactions in the heart of the city. In the past, all cities developed alongside harbours and other growing industries depending on the area, but now the rate of growth is so insane we would have to build a new Sydney every ten years for the next ninety years to keep up with it. Sydney is a global city. In 2016 Melbourne and Sydney both ranked as two of the world’s ‘elite cities’ according to the Global Cities analysis by A. T. Kearney with Sydney at 14th and Melbourne at 15th. This analysis measures the current performance of potential of cities to “attract and retain global capital, people and ideas, as well as sustain that performance in the long term”, and the current performance of cities in business activity, human capital, information exchange, cultural experience and political engagement. But what does this mean for the future of our two big Australian cities? Can a city expand and increase its population without sacrificing the current way of life? #S208UOW17 #Tut 11 #Mon1630

Dylan Le @Ssodiumm said : Guest Report 2 years ago

My point is the Flow is usually controlled by economic power i.e big companies and ernomous power (that somehow no longer lies in the hands of the governement and the people). Which leads to a conclusion that if your were to direct the flow in order to increase wealth and capital to other parts of a country, soon enough, the poor will also be driven out of their place because of rising house prices and unaffordable amenities. Then again, if those people does not have the economic power to elevate themselves, then they have to rely on the government (which has somehow been rendered useless by big companies i.e USA), that keeps the poor in this vicious circle of poverty. Should there be some more fndamental regulation of the government towards the flow, there will be chances that the spaces will be equally distributed to all the people.

Abigail Crane said : Guest Report 2 years ago

I also agree with your point. Although many of us struggle to seek employment opportunities other than in the larger cities, I believe expanding into rural areas will attract more foreign investors which could largely impact the transformation of these areas. Furthermore, as you stated, these areas will just be aimed towards the rich, leaving many of us unable to keep up (specifically, those whom have always remained in rural areas despite the struggle to gain an income strong enough to support their family's). We can already see today many families struggling to keep up with the rise of housing and other assets in rural areas because of the increase in populations now wanting to migrate into these areas due to cities becoming overcrowded. #S208UOW17 #TUT11 #MON1630

Kareem Choubassi said : Guest Report 2 years ago

In terms of Australia, larger cities like Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and even Perth are expanding yet consistently becoming largely expensive in terms of housing. I assume that once it comes to a point where cities such as Sydney can no longer go sideways but instead go "up", that these smaller cities such as Wollongong will grow in regards of population and innovation as they become more appealing. What the problem does seem to be is whether this growth of a smaller city will follow the same pattern in terms of unaffordability of housing for the middle-class and family. A variety of housing types from lower-class to rich population, and younger adult population to families/aging population is key to expanding and attracting the population. It's up to the government to find these solutions within housing and opportunities within cities as currently, the younger population do not have enough influence on the future (like a lot of things these days, it seems).

Rachel Sparkes said : Guest Report 2 years ago

I agree that inner cities are becoming spaces of business and the creative class are being drawn into the inner city. Due to the high real estate prices in the city people are moving to suburbs, resulting in high populated areas. Perhaps regional areas can entice the creative class to appeal to the suburbs and perhaps the businesses will follow #S208UOW17 #Mon1630

Michaela Matthews said : Guest Report 2 years ago

The populations of large cities is rapidly increasing, whether people are making the move from suburbia for a change in lifestyle or more commonly for work, it is transforming the inner city as Roger said ‘into a space for the rich that drives out the middle class’. The ‘Creative Class’ (florida) as discussed last week are being drawn into the city, but due to the high real-estate prices in Sydney we must remember than many young Australians and on the opposite end, many of the elder, poorer, suburban folk can afford to live the inner city life. These highly populated inner city areas are becoming spaces of business and economy, in which Global cities are imbedded. The citizens and conditions of living are not the big picture in terms of construction and development of the city, there is a strong focus on ‘the flow of capital’ and that is what is ‘forming the urban shape.’ Why are areas away from the metropolis struggling to gain the right resources they need to complete with these highly populated and richer areas? We need to redirect the flow of capital into the areas that actually need it. There needs to be more employment opportunities and a more appealing lifestyle in suburbia as there is in the inner city, perhaps people wouldn't mind living in suburbia and the spread will even out. #SOC208UOW17 #tut11 #mon1130

Jessica Green said : Guest Report 2 years ago

I think the first step to entice large conglomerations to invest regional areas would be for these places to first attract the creative class. Regional areas could appeal to the creative class through promoting the idea of a simple and relaxing country life, expanding yourself to a new way of living and taking in creative new ideas by moving away from the restrictions of the city (something like a PR stunt). This way you are appealing to the imagination of the creative class. And the idea would be that once these people move and establish themselves, the businesses would follow. #S208UOW17#TUT11#MON1130

Justin Luzuriaga - @justinluzuriaga said : Guest Report 2 years ago

Without careful consideration, would these new polycentric cities further create/contribute to congestion that we see in the city. The article notes implications for establishing efficient commuting and the proximity to the airport likely to stimulate economic activity, though as discussed in Week 9 our dependence on cars has created a gridlock. I agree with the idea to 'establish and support clusters of activity away from the city centre' to promote equitably access to employment, however equal importance needs to be placed on transport (particularly public) and commuting in general in these areas for this to be a liveable solution. #S208UOW17 #Tut11 #Mon1130

Michaela Matthews said : Guest Report 2 years ago

I agree with you for pointing out Australia as an example of how the metropolitan is heavily populated in comparison to the suburban and rural areas of Australia. The size of the country that we live in is huge, there are endless amounts of unused areas to be occupied, however it’s not. People don't find these rural areas appealing, we desire the lifestyle of living in the ‘big cities’ or on the coast, even if it is overcrowded. I think also with the prominent role of social media in our lives, we see this ‘desirable’ lifestyle frequently on our newsfeed on Facebook and Instagram, making it look ever so pleasant, making us want what other people have. But the prices of living in the city is rapidly growing and transforming the inner city as Roger said ‘into a space for the rich that drives out the middle class’. Residents are slowly getting pushed towards suburbia, because the cost of living in the city is too high, and I think this is why suburbia will become more populated, but how long will that take? Thinking about your last question Jack, I think as suburbia becomes more populated by the middle class, due to realestate prices (and basically forcing people out), the business will follow the people. #SPC208UOW17 #tut11 #mon1130

Jasmine Hamlet said : Guest Report 2 years ago

The point raised about not utilising space is worthwhile to consider. This is because global cities such as Sydney are becoming unsustainable which will only be further exacerbated as population rates continue to rise. The suggestion that Sydney will need to be redeveloped every 10 years to keep up with this increase seems an almost unrealistic challenge that will require the most skilled urban planners to be involved in order to attempt to achieve this. Consequently, the flow needs to be redirected to reduce some of this strain. A relocation of opportunities needs to occur. However, it must be planned in such a way that it isn't restricted to privileging the rich. Instead, there needs to be equity of access for all SES backgrounds which ultimately would seem most beneficial for all. Expanding in to rural Australia does seem like a solution however, it does present a clear challenge. This was acknowledged by Jack's point that "the cost offers a wider variety of opportunities to families in relation to work, lifestyle and leisure." These benefits of coastal living reflects Australian cultural values that place significant importance on living somewhere which will offer all three. These ideals can be suggested to also reflect elements of the Australian nuclear suburban dream. This is because at the moment, being near/in cities that are close to the ocean are regarded as superior . In which case, perhaps then it isn't just a physical shift of opportunities that needs to occur, but a shift in cultural values too. #S208UOW17 #Tut11 #MON1130

Katherine lewis said : Guest Report 2 years ago

Cities have always attracted people as the idea that they are central hubs for innovation and so therefore the potential for jobs are greater. This sense that jobs are abundant in these areas, has the greatest attracting for migrant workers who need to move to areas where work will be easy to come by. How do we then entice resources and funding away from these areas, to ones that need this more greatly. Could regulations and agreements and incentives such as quota systems be set up in more regional areas which could help to entice large conglomerations to move out of the cities and spread their wealth to areas where this degree of urbanisation is lacking?

Oliver Baldwin said : Guest Report 2 years ago

I think globalisation is a world wide event that has the potential to be extremely beneficial to our society, or could lead to its downfall. The way in which we manage our progression and expansion is crucial. If we continue to allow major cooperations to rule and shape the way that our cities are becoming than this may lead to a dystopian future. Wealth inequality is unfortunately only going to rise with the wealth gap ever growing. Globalisation has shown to have major financial benefits to developed countries, however pushed developing counties further into poverty. The exploration of cheap labour in developed countries is being used to further our gains in the west. If the trends continue as they are at present time we may see more significant movements away from globalisation as seen in 2016 by the United Kingdom as they chose to break away from the European Union to reclaim their sovereignty and economy. #S208UOW2017 #TUT11 #MON1130

Alexandra Milora said : Guest Report 2 years ago

#S208UOW2017 #Tut11 #Mon1130

Alexandra Milora said : Guest Report 2 years ago

Your last comment in mentioning your close approaching reality of graduating and needing to relocate (finding a job and place to live) but not seeing a small city such as Tamworth as an appropriate fit or feasible option due to the lack of opportunities for an educated young person is one that strikes me as the best way of illustrating and putting into real life situation one of the obviously very complex and most problematic issues of globalization. People go to where there are opportunities. Young, educated individuals are drawn to areas that have apt opportunities for them to survive. No one is going to take the initiative to move away from these opportunities to create new ones putting their livelihood on the line to only potentially be successful in doing so. The problem of opportunities, resources, and infrastructure being centred solely in these global cities is the main issue that needs to be addressed. But how do we do so when the only solutions smaller cities have come up with to attract people is lowering their taxes which then in turn has other detrimental effects such as a lack of resources to develop the cities as they would like and provide adequate infrastructure and transportation options. Clearly not really a solution. There is a vicious cycle that so far has seen no end. Big companies have little to no interest in investing out of risk of not getting their money’s worth and individuals have no interest in moving to places that do not have the lifestyle opportunities and qualities they are looking for. Trends so solidly established such as these are extremely difficult to break. What will it take to break this one that is so heavily characteristic of the way cities are built and function today? Would this have to be an initiative brought on by the government to hopefully find solutions? but as Allie stated with a government mainly constituted of white wealthy men will this ever be something they are willing to invest their energy in to entail real changes? As a whole we are aware that this is unsustainable but as individuals we are preoccupied with our own survival and unable to take the steps necessary to have a large enough impact for a change to be initiated. How can we bring together enough influence to redistribute the power these global cities currently hold giving individuals equal opportunities and better use of the space available for more equal and sustainable lifestyles?

Patrick Lenck said : Guest Report 2 years ago

#S208UOW17 #Tut11 #mon16:30

Patrick Lenck said : Guest Report 2 years ago

You see it so much around the world that people move to the big cities from the country because of this mirage of opportunity. I have noticed this particularly in mega cities such as, Bangkok and Mexico City where there is an abundance of shanty towns and people trying to hustle off cheap goods to make a bit of money. After talking to people in these situations they are often uneducated and from rural areas of their homeland and have this false idea in there head that there is an abundance of jobs in the city. The problem is they do not have the social, cultural or economic capital to get themselves one of these mystical jobs. Leading to growing numbers of people and a growing gap between the rich and the poor.

Jordan Osborne said : Guest Report 2 years ago

#S208UOW2017 #Tut11 #Wed14:30

Allie Sims @AllieSoc said : Guest Report 2 years ago

This idea of avoiding creating areas for the rich only is definitely something that needs to be addressed. At the moment our Government is predominately made of rich white men, and until that changes I think it will be hard for any progress to be made in moving away from creating areas that are specifically targeted to the rich. It is also interesting the idea you've mentioned about moving away from the coast to the regional areas of Australia. This requires a change in the mindset of people and what they feel constitutes a good way of life. I think its required but it'll be interesting how long it will take. The other interesting solution mentioned was to move industry out to regional and rural areas, but when moving business you have to make sure there is a customer base available, otherwise it will fail. There are a few options for increasingly globalised cities, it is simply a matter of which is the best option. #S208UOW17 #Tut11 #Mon1130

Kristy Iervasi said : Guest Report 2 years ago

#SOC#S208UOW17 #Tut11 #mon16:30

Kristy Iervasi said : Guest Report 2 years ago

I found it interesting when the video in the lecture said that we would need to build a new Sydney every ten years! Also when Sassen (2000) noted that cooperates now have more power than Governments to shape our city. After looking more into this matter I came across an interesting idea by Sarker, Phillips and Simpson (2017) who note that as places like Sydney and Melbourne expand it is important that we also develop ‘clusters of activity’ away from the city centre, pretty much meaning the building of cities away from the city centre. They call these polycentric cities, these have potential to access higher paying jobs and lowered travel time. Places like Parramatta in Sydney and the new airport is what I see would be a polycentric cities. By making ‘new city’ type areas the distribution and access to jobs can be spread and decreases the saturation of the city centre. It can then help match jobs and housing location to people who live in the suburban areas which might attract more people back in the suburbia. Another idea is the development of spatial policies to support higher, middle and lower-income jobs in all business districts to decrease the clusters of mega rich areas of the main city. To support this would be house market stability which should strive to have a mix of housing types in all areas so that all people, from medium to low income can afford houses in all areas and don’t have to travel long distances everyday. Sarker,S, Phillips, P and Simpson, S 2017, Our big cities are engines of inequality, so how do we fix that?, The Conversation, viewed 21/5/17, 'Sassen, S 2000, The urban impact of economic globalization', Cities in a world economy, 2nd ed, Pine Forge Press, Thousand Oaks, Calif, pp. 11-31.

Jordan Osborne said : Guest Report 2 years ago

What I view as a critical issue here - as Saskia Sassen notes - is that these globalised cities have become hubs for individuals with complex skills thus creating concentrated zones for the creative class. Deputy Prime Minister Barnaby Joyce made headlines earlier this year when he suggested first home buyers should move to Tamworth as housing was much more affordable; "People have just got to realise that houses are much cheaper in Tamworth,”. But as a number of follow up reports from journalists and academics demonstrated, this was not a feasible alternative for many due to a lack of diversity in employment and industry. This segment on SBS’ the Feed demonstrates that: So how do we re-direct the flow of industry and employment to these rural areas? And how can these skilled industries develop in areas traditionally dominated by industrial work and trade? Being on the cusp of graduating with a media degree myself, I can certainly say that moving to Broken Hill isn’t going to be a viable option for me anytime next year.

Emily Martin said : Guest Report 2 years ago

I think it is interesting a point that Jack highlighted, that the majority of the country, in Australia's example, is not being utilised. If you look at a map of Australia, it is clearly evident that the majority of the population live in the major cities or on the various coastlines surrounding the country. The housing prices within these major cities such as Sydney and Melbourne have forced many families to flee/relocate to suburbia, but maybe to a place where there may not be as much employment opportunity. How is this a fair divide between the rich/upper class and the lower/working class people of Australia? This surely can't last long, with people having to commute to the large cities for work etc., but as Justin stated as well, there is a flip side, with many young educated people moving to the cities. So who is going to survive in these environments? Will be interesting to see what happens within these cities over the next few decades. #S208UOW17 #Tut11 #mon1130

Ana Talevska @at984uow said : Guest Report 2 years ago

I think your idea to concentrate industries in regional centres is a good idea for tackling the issue of highly concentrated cities. However, I feel the problem with foreign investors will worsen in doing so. Personally I believe the aim should be to avoid creating an area whereby only the rich can survive, like Jack said, so by moving people out of cities and into rural areas these vacant properties will, more than likely, become a target for foreign investors. This topic has truly portrayed the issues associated with these cities, and the difficulty in attempting to solve them without creating other issues. Overall, it just depends on what we each think is more important.

Justin Luzuriaga - @justinluzuriaga said : Guest Report 2 years ago

I think the currently reality as mentioned in your example of Sydney's growth points towards the latter of only the rich being able to survive in cities around the world. However, in considering 'bright flight' recognised by Twill (2017), could there be a reversal of this movement - one in which the young highly educated make their way back into the city once (or if) they join the ranks of the 'rich'? #S208UOW17 #Tut11 #Mon1130

Joel Keen @TonySpark13 said : Guest Report 2 years ago

You raise a legitimate point regarding the utilisation of space, particularly in Australia. As a society, we obviously have the capability to convert undesirable space into a place that is desirable enough to attract large amounts of people, consequently generating economic viability, Las Vegas is evidence of that (Moehring and Green, 2005) . Perhaps if we concentrated related industries in regional centres - such as producing fabrics and related products in cotton growing regions - social, economic and environmental costs could be minimised through efficiency of production. In turn inviting investment and encouraging growth outside of 'big cities'. #S208Uow2017 #Tut11 #Mon1630 Moehring, E.P. and Green, M.S., 2005. Las Vegas: A centennial history. University of Nevada Press. pp xiii-xvi.

Jack Foulger said : Guest Report 2 years ago

Why are these 'big cities' around the world so heavily populated with human capital when there is ample space within almost all countries that is not effectively utilized? For example in Australia's case, the human population is so heavily concentrated in our big cities such as Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane etc due to employment opportunity and quality of life. However, majority of the country is not occupied by people as much as it perhaps could be. Evidently, there is less employment opportunity in more rural towns but why is this so? It appears that life on the coast offers a wider variety of opportunities to families in relation to work, lifestyle and leisure. With cities such as Sydney expanding, cities and outer suburbs are fast growing and the demands of this growth is ultimately pressuring the housing market. Affordability of homes and even rent has become astronomically expensive and as a result people are being forced to leave the city and head for suburbia. A prime example being sydneys growth, forcing middle class to relocate to surrounding towns/suburbs such as Campbelltown and Wollongong and commute to their work commitments in the city. Will workplaces begin to relocate themselves to more rural areas as a result of the middle class' movement out of the city, or will it be the case of only the rich being able to survive in large cities around the world? #S208UOW2017 #TUT11 #MON1130

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